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The Aeneid Epic poem which tells the story of the heroic Aeneas and the founding of Rome. Author: Vergil 70-19 B.C. from Mantua (Mantova) in Northern Italy Aeneas carrying his father Anchises on hisi shoulders RAFFAELLO Sanzio The Fire in the Borgo (detail), 1514, Stanza dell'Incendio, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican. Map of Aeneas Travels • • • • • • • • • • • • THE STORY OF THE AENEID Book I. Under Aeneas the Trojans sail toward Italy. Juno contrives a storm. and the Trojans are shipwrecked on the coast of Libya. They are welcomed by Queen Dido in her palace at Carthage. At a banquet Aeneas recounts his adventures. Book II. Aeneas tells about the destruction of Troy and his escape with his father Anchises, his son Ascanius, and a few Trojan followers. Book III. After unsuccessful attempts to settle in Thracc and Crete, the Trojans land in Western Sicily, where Anchises dies. After sailing from Sicily, the Trojans are driven by a storm to the coast of Libya. Book IV. Dido falls madly in love with Aeneas. Mercury warns Aeneas of his divine mission to seek a home in Italy. Aeneas leaves Carthage, and Dido in despair kills herself. Book V. Aeneas lands in Sicily on the anniversary of his father's death. Funeral games are held to mark the occasion. Aeneas then sails for Italy. Book VI. Landing at Cumae, Aeneas meets the Sibyl. He visits the underworld to consult Anchises, who prophesies the future greatness of Rome. Book VII. Aeneas lands on the left bank of the Tiber and is welcomed by envoys from King Latinus, who offers Aeneas his daughter Lavinia in marriage. Juno stirs up strife between the Trojans and the Italians. Book VIII. Aeneas sails up the river to Palanteum, later the Palatine Hill, and makes an alliance with King Evander. Vulcan at Venus's request forges weapons for Aeneas. Book IX. Turnus in Aeneas's absence attacks the Trojan camp. Ascanius with bow and arrow kills Numanus, brother-in-law of Turnus. Turnus enters the Trojan camp and slays many Trojans. Book X. Aeneas returns with Etrurian allies and Pallas, son of King Evander. Turnus slays Pallas and Aeneas slays Mezentius, an exiled Etrurian king. Book XI. After a twelve days' truce for the burial of the dead, the Trojans advance on Laurentum. Camilla, warrior maiden and ally of Turnus, is slain by a Trojan. Book XII. Turnus agrees to single combat with Aeneas. King Latinus and Aeneas meet at an altar in the plain to arrange for the combat. Juturna, Turnus's sister, incites the Latins to violate the truce and attack the Trojans. Aeneas is wounded, but is miraculously cured with the help of Venus. Aeneas and Turnus finally meet, and Aeneas slays Turnus. Roman Gods • • • • • • • • Zeus Hera Athena Aphrodite Hephestus Hermes Ares Poseidon • • • • • • • • Jupiter Juno Minerva Venus Vulcan Mercury Mars Neptune • In Roman religion every household had its own personal spirits which protected it. The lares were the spirits of the family's ancestors. And the penates were kind spirits who garded the pantry. Little figurines of these spirits were kept in a small household shrine, called the lararium. Aeneas’ parents Aeneas was born from the union of a mortal, Anchises, and a goddess, Aphrodite. Anchises, having drunk much wine, told his friends that he was the lover of the goddess, and for this reason he was struck by Zeus' thunderbolt which crippled him. Mountain nymphs raised Aeneas until he was five years old, when he was sent to live with his father. Aeneas’ descendants • Aeneas married Creusa, one of Priam's daughters, and they had a son named Ascanius. • Ascanius was also called Iulus, or Julius, and a clan of Romans called the Julians claimed to descend from him. Julius Caesar and his nephew Augustus, who became the first Roman emperor, were members of that clan. In this way, the rulers of Rome traced their ancestry—and their right to rule—back to the demigod Aeneas. Aeneas during the Trojan War • During the war not only his mother, Aphrodite, but also the powerful gods Poseidon and Apollo gave Aeneas protection. Aeneas was wounded by Diomedes and, having fainted, would have died if his mother had not come to his rescue. Aphrodite herself was wounded by Diomedes on this occasion, but Apollo took over the protection of the wounded Aeneas, removing him from the battle. Leto and Artemis healed Aeneas and made him even stronger. Later having recovered, he returned to the field. Poseidon's Prophecy When the gods had become more involved in the fighting, Apollo urged Aeneas to challenge Achilles and to fight with him in single combat. Aeneas was very close to die, but Poseidon rescued him, explaining to the other gods: "Even Zeus might be angry if Achilles killed Aeneas, who after all is destined to survive and to save the House of Dardanus from extinction ... Priam's line has fallen out of favour with Zeus, and now Aeneas shall be King of Troy and shall be followed by his children's children in the time to come." [Poseidon to the gods. Homer, Iliad 20.300] Aeneas and his fleet get caught in a storm sent by Juno Aeneas is welcomed by Dido, queen of Carthage Aenas tells Dido of the fall of Troy SINON • While the Trojans are debating what to do with the giant wooden horse, some Trojan shepherds come running up they have captured a member of the Greek army, a man named Sinon. Sinon, however, is a double-agent: he is going to pretend to hate the Greeks, when in reality he is acting on behalf of the Greeks, sent there with a story full of lies that is intended to persuade the Trojans to bring the wooden horse into their city. Sinon pretends to beg the Trojans for mercy, for protection: when in fact he is bringing about their destruction. Laocoon and his sons The Trojans decide to bring the horse into the town TIEPOLO, Giovanni Domenico The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy. 1773. National Gallery, London. Aeneas leaves Troy Dido and Aeneas After Aeneas leaves, Dido commits suicide. Death of Dido • Pietas was the key quality of any 'honourable' Roman. It consisted of a series of duties: duty towards the Gods; duty towards one's homeland; duty towards one's followers and duty to one's family especially one's father.