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IND425 HCI
Chapter 1. Human Factors of Interactive Software
1.
Introduction
 experimental psychology, computer science, graphic designers, human factors or ergonomics,
anthropologist, sociologists, technical writers
 HCI – User Interface
 ACM – SIGCHI
2.
Goals of System Engineering
 high-quality interactive system – thoughtful planning, sensitivity to user needs, diligent testing
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.
Proper functionality
Reliability, availability, security, and data integrity
Standardization, integration, consistency, and portability
Schedules and budgets
Goals of User-Interface Design
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
time to learn
speed of performance
rate of errors by users
retention over time
subjective satisfaction
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
3.
Motivations for Human Factors in Design
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
Life-critical systems
Industrial and commercial users
Office, home, and entertainment applications
Exploratory, creative, and cooperative systems
Accommodation of Human Diversity
1. Physical ability and physical workplaces
2. Cognitive and Perceptual abilities
3. Personality differences
 Carl Jung’s theories of personality types
 extroversion vs. introversion
 sensing vs. intuition
 perceptive vs. judging
 feeling vs. thinking
4. Cultural and international diversity
5. Users with disabilities
6. Elderly users
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
2. Theories, Principles, and Guidelines
2.2 High-Level Theories
 explanatory – observing behavior, describing activity, conceiving of designs, comparing high-level
concepts of two designs, and training – taxonomy
 predictive – compare proposed designs for execution time or error rates
 perceptual or cognitive subtasks theories – successful in predicting reading
 motor-task performance times theories (Fitts’ Law)
1. Four-level approach (Foley and Van Dam, 1990)
 conceptual level; semantic level; syntactic level; lexical level
2. GOMS and KLM (Card et al., 1983)
3. Seven stages of action (Norman, 1988)
1. forming the goal
2. forming the intention
3. specifying the action
4. executing the action
5. perceiving the system state
6. interpreting the system state
7. evaluating the outcomes
 gulf of execution / gulf of evaluation
 four principle of good design
1. action alternatives visible
2. good conceptual model with a consistent system image
3. good mappings
4. continuous feedback
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
 user failures
1. inadequate goal
3. not know how to execute a desired action
4.
2. incomprehensible label or icon
4. inappropriate/misleading feedback
Principle 1: Recognize the Diversity
1. Usage profiles
•
•
•
novices or first-time users
knowledgeable intermittent users
expert frequent users
2. Task profiles
•
•
high level task actions > multiple middle level task actions > atomic actions
relative frequency of actions
3. Interaction styles
•
•
•
5.
6.
•
•
Menu selection
Command language
Principle 2: Use the Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design
Principle 3: Prevent Errors
1.
2.
3.
9.
Direct manipulation
Form fillin
Natural language
Correct matching pairs
Complete sequences
Correct commands
Balance of Automation and Human Control
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
3. Managing Design Process
2.
Organizational Design to Support Usability
 design
 a process
 nonhierarchical
 radically transformational
 discovery of new goals
3.
Three Pillars of Design
1.
2.
3.
4.
Guidelines documents and processes
User-interface software tools
Expert reviews and usability testing
Development Methodologies
 Logical User-Centered Interactive Design (LUCID) Methodology
Stage 1: Develop product concept
Stage 2: Perform research and needs analysis
Stage 3: Design concepts and key-screen prototype
Stage 4: Do iterative design and refinement
Stage 5: Implement software
Stage 6: Provide rollout support
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
5.
Ethnographic Observation




6.
7.
9.
Preparation
Field Study
Analysis
Reporting
Participatory Design
Scenario Development
Legal Issues





privacy
safety and reliability
copyright protection
freedom of speech in electronic environments
equal access for disabled users
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
4. Expert Reviews, Usability Testing
2.
Expert Reviews
•
•
•
•
•
3.
Heuristic evaluation
Guideline review
Consistency inspection
Cognitive walkthrough
Formal usability inspection
Usability Testing and Laboratories
•
•
•
•
•
•
speed up projects and cost savings
controlled experiments vs. usability tests
task analysis  detailed test plan  pilot study
participants -- instructions, informed consent
effective techniques
• thinking aloud
• videotaping
• discount usability engineering
• field tests
two limitations
• emphasizes first-time usage, limited coverage of the interface features
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
4.
Surveys
•
•
•
5.
Acceptance Tests
•
•
•
•
•
6.
Time for users to learn specific functions
Speed of task performance
Rate of errors by users
User retention of commands over time
Subjective user satisfaction
Evaluation During Active Use
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
clear goals in advance and development of focused items
5-7 Likert scale
QUIS
Interviews and focus-group discussions
Continuous user-performance data logging
Online or telephone consultants
Online suggestion box or trouble reporting
Online bulletin board or newsgroup
User newsletters and conferences
Controlled Psychologically Oriented Experiments
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
6. Direct Manipulation and VE
2.
Examples of Direct-Manipulation Systems
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
3.
Command-line vs. display editors vs. word processors
1. WYSIWYG
The VisiCalc spreadsheet and its descendants
Video games
Computer-aided design
Office automation
Explanation of Direct Manipulation
•
•
•
•
1.
principle of virtuality
principle of transparency
in harmony with the popular notions of logical symbolic sequential left-brain and the visual artistic allat-once right-brain problem-solving
breaches the gulf of execution and the gulf of evaluation
Problems of direct manipulation
• spatial or visual representations can be too spread out
• users must learn the graphical representations – icons
• visual representation may be misleading
• typing commands with the keyboard may be faster
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
4.
Visual Thinking and Icons
•
•
•
6.
an icon is an image, picture, or symbol representing a concept
small representations of an object or action
four levels of icon design (Marcus, 1992)
1. Lexical qualities
2. Syntactics
3. Semantics
4. Pragmatics
5. Dynamics
Remote Direct Manipulation
•
•
•
•
time delay – transmission delay, operation delay
incomplete feedback
feedback from multiple sources
unanticipated interferences
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
8.
Virtual Environments
•
•
immersive experiences, “looking at” to “being in”, augmented reality, situational awareness
multiple technologies for successful VE
• visual display
• head-position sensing
• hand-position sensing
• force feedback
• sound input and output
• other sensations
• cooperative and competitive virtual reality
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
7. Menu, Form Fillin, and Dialog Boxes
2.
Task-Related Organization
•
•
1.
2.
3.
hierarchical decomposition
comprehensible and distinctive category
Single menus
• Binary menus
• prefer mnemonic letters to numbered choices
• no optimal format but consistency
• Multiple-item menus
• Multiple-selection menus or check boxes
• Pull-down and pop-up menus
• Scrolling and two-dimensional menus (fast and vast)
• Alphasliders
• Embedded links
• Iconic menus, toolbars, or palettes
Linear sequences and multiple menus
Tree-structured menus
• Depth versus breadth
• 4 to 8 items per menu, but, at the same time no more than 3 to 4 levels
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
4.
3.
• breadth preferred over depth
• Task-related grouping in tree structures
• create groups of logically similar items
• form groups that cover all possibilities
• make sure that items are nonoverlapping
• use familiar terminology
• Menu maps
Acyclic and cyclic menu networks
Item Presentation Sequence
•
•
4.
5.
time, numeric ordering, physical properties
alphabetical sequence of terms; grouping of related items; most frequently used items first;
most important items first
Response Time and Display Rate
Fast Movement Through Menus
1.
2.
3.
Menus with typeahead: The BLT (bacon, lettuce, tomato) approach
• familiar menus; response time or display rates are slow; powerful, simple, graceful evolution
from novice to expert
Menu names or bookmarks for direct access
Menu macros, custom toolbars, and style sheets
고려대학교 산업공학과
IND425 HCI
3.
Menu Layout
1.
2.
3.
7.
Form Fillin
1.
2.
3.
8.
Titles
• single menus – simple descriptive title
• linear sequence of menus – consistent grammatical style, brief but unambiguous noun phrases
• tree-structured menus
Phrasing of menu items
Graphic layout and design
• titles, item placement, instructions, error messages, status reports
• different fonts and typefaces
• linear sequence menus -- position marker
• GUI – tree structured or linear sequence menus -- cascading or walking menus
• magic lenses, menu maps
Form-fillin design guidelines
List and combo boxes
Coded fields
Dialog Boxes
고려대학교 산업공학과