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Communication:
Interpersonal and
Organizational
Chapter 13
MANAGEMENT
Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations
EIGHTH EDITION
Prepared by
Deborah Baker
Texas Christian University
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
1
learning objectives
1. Discuss the importance of communication
in organizations
2. Diagram the communication process and
label all its parts
3. List and explain the barriers to interpersonal
communication and suggest remedies to
overcome them
4. Describe the uses of downward, horizontal,
Chapter 13
and upward communication channels
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
2
learning objectives (continued)
5. Describe the informal communication
channel known as the grapevine
6. List and explain the barriers to organizational
communication and suggest remedies to
overcome them
7. Describe the responsibilities of senders and
Chapter 13
receivers during the communication process
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
3
Communication
1
Chapter 13
Communication allows sharing of…
Attitudes
Values
Emotions
Ambitions
Wants
Needs
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4
2
Communication
Chapter 13
Communication
The transmission of information
and understanding from one
person or group to another
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
5
2
Communication Process
Message
Sender
Receiver
Chapter 13
Feedback
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6
2
Mediums of Communication
Spoken words
Verbal
Written words
Images
Gestures
Facial
expressions
Body
language
Chapter 13
Nonverbal
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7
2
Choice of Medium
Factors Influencing Choice
The content of the message
The importance of feedback
The number of intended receivers
The receiver’s and sender’s preferences
and characteristics
The sender’s and receiver’s locations and
environments
Chapter 13
The technologies available
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
8
2
Written Forms of Communication
Letters
Outlines
Memos
Reports
Disadvantages
Impersonal
Do not provide the immediacy of
Chapter 13
face-to-face contact
Do not elicit immediate feedback
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
9
2
Interpersonal Communication
Chapter 13
Interpersonal
Communication
Face-to-face or voice-to-voice
conversations that take place in
real time and allow instant
feedback
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10
2
Communication and Teams
Exchange views
Discuss work
Deliberate on a problem
Chapter 13
Transmit information
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11
2
Communication and Teams
Chapter 13
Team
Members
Share…
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
12
Chapter 13
2
Communication and Teams
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
13
Chapter 13
3
Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
Diction and Semantics
Differing Perceptions
Expectations of
Familiarity
Conflicting Nonverbal
Communication
Sources Lack of
Credibility
Emotions
Preconceived Notions
Noise
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
14
3
Diction and Semantics
Diction
Semantics
Chapter 13
Jargon
The choice and use of words in
speech and writing
The study of the meaning
of words
The specialized or technical
language of a trade, profession,
subculture, or other group
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
15
4
Formal Downward Channels
Chapter 13
DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
CEO’s vision
Job designs
Changes in rules/procedures
Performance appraisals
Company mission
Policies
Delegation of authority
Solutions
Development
Staff managers’ advice
Feedback
Strategic goals
Incentives
Training
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
16
4
Downward Communication Devices
Company procedures manuals
Newsletters
Public relations announcements
Chapter 13
Annual statements
Memos, reports, letters, and directives
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
17
Formal Horizontal Channels
4
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION
Coordination efforts
Efforts to seek assistance
Feedback
Information to/about
customers
Information to/about
suppliers
Chapter 13
Group-member
interactions
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
18
4
Horizontal Communication Channels
Set goals
Define roles
Create, examine, and improve methods
Improve working relationships
Define, investigate, and solve problems
Gather, process, and distribute
Chapter 13
information
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
19
Formal Upward Channels
4
Chapter 13
UPWARD COMMUNICATION
Complaints
Requests for assistance
Feedback
Status reports
Recommended
solutions
Research results
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20
4
Formal Upward Channels
Allows workers to request assistance in
solving problems
Provides a means for workers to
recommend solutions
Provide status report
Chapter 13
Inform authorities about employee complaints
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
21
4
Upward Communication Tools
Employee surveys
Newsletters
Meetings between manager and
subordinate
Chapter 13
Suggestion systems
Team meetings
Open-door policy
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
22
5
Informal Communication Channels
Characteristics of the Grapevine
It can penetrate the tightest security
It is fast
It tends to carry messages from anonymous
sources
Its messages are difficult to stop or counter
It is accessible to every person
It can be support of or an obstacle to
Chapter 13
management's efforts
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
23
Grapevine Configurations
5
Single Chain
A
B
C
D
A
Gossip
B
F
Chapter 13
C
E
D
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24
Grapevine Configurations
5
Random
D
C
E
B
F
A
I
Cluster
H
A
B
D
C
E
G
F
M
Chapter 13
G
H
I
J
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
K
L
25
6
Barriers to Organizational Communication
Overload
Filtering by levels
Timing
Lack of trust and openness
Inappropriate span of control
Change
Rank or status in the company
Chapter 13
Managers’ interpretations
Electronic noise
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
26
7
Responsibilities of Senders
Being certain of intent
Knowing the receiver and constructing the
message accordingly
Chapter 13
Selecting the proper medium
Timing the transmission
Seeking and giving feedback
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
27
Typical Communication Goals
7
Chapter 13
WHEN COMMUNICATING WITH SUPERIORS

To provide responses to request

To keep them informed of progress

To solicit help in solving problems

To sell ideas and suggestions for improvement

To seek clarification of instructions
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28
Typical Communication Goals
7
Chapter 13
WHEN COMMUNICATING WITH PEERS

To share ideas for improvement

To coordinate activities

To provide assistance

To get to know them as individuals
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
29
Typical Communication Goals
7
Chapter 13
WHEN COMMUNICATING WITH SUBORDINATES

To issue instructions

To persuade and sell

To appraise performance

To compliment, reward, and discipline

To clarify intentions and instructions

To get to know them as individuals
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
30
7
Responsibilities of Receivers
Chapter 13
Listening actively
Being sensitive to the sender
Indicating an appropriate medium
Initiating feedback
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved
31