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Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
CHAPTER 12
Communication in Families and at Work, continued…
Interplay
Section 5
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
AT WORK
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
How important is
communication at work?

400 HR Managers:



Interpersonal/human relations
at the top of the list.
Communication skills ranked
higher than GPA, specific
degree held and technical
skills.
Public Forum Institute:
“Participants responded that
soft skills, such as interpersonal
relations, critical thinking, and
problem solving, were more
sought after in candidates than
were hard skills, such as
computer literacy, writing, and
technical skills.”
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Advancing Your Career: Networking

Interpersonal communication
skills help you network.


Networking: Process of
deliberately meeting people
and maintaining contacts to get
career information, advice, and
leads.
Identifying your networks



Face to face or mediated i.e.,
Facebook, MySpace.
Consider immediate and
distant contacts
Join networks of strangers to
seek job leads through career
networking or community.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Interviewing for Employment


Interviews are a
conversation, but without
social chats
Interviews are:




Purposeful
Structured
Controlled
Balanced in participation
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Before the Interview

Clarify the interviewer’s goals



Education and training most
important? Initiative?
Experience?
Discover hidden goals
Come prepared





Extra resumes
Take notes
Copies of past work
References
Advance research of the
organization
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
During the Interview

Make a good first impression




Get off to a good start




Arrive 10-15 minutes early
Consider clothing
Research: First exchange can shape
success or failure: First four minutes!
Greeting
Informal conversation
Establish common ground
Give clear, detailed answers


Think: “General theme, then
specifics.”
Come with brief stories,
illustrations, examples that
highlight your abilities and skills.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
During the Interview

Keep your answers focused




Follow the interviewer’s lead




Beware of rattling on; employ turn-taking.
Answers shouldn’t run over a minute or two.
First four minutes!
Interviewer sets the emotional tone
Tone doesn’t fit? Job may not fit.
Come prepared to answer the interviewer’s questions.
Come prepared to ask the interviewer questions


Interview the company as much as they are interviewing you.
Good questions show you’ve done your homework, but avoid salary/
benefit questions.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
After the Interview





Note of thanks—be
one of the few!
Express appreciation
Identify specific
information learned
during the interview
Show how what you
learned makes you a
good match for the
job
Confirm the next steps.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Interplay
Section 6
COMMUNICATING IN ORGANIZATIONS
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Formal and Informal Relationships


Formal communication: Interaction
that follows officially established
channels.
Upward communication:
Subordinates communicate with
their bosses—sometimes in a way
that distorts negative information
and puts it in a positive light.
 What subordinates are doing
 Unsolved work problems
 Suggestions for improvement
 How subordinates are feeling
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Formal and Informal Relationships

Downward communication:
Managers address message
to subordinates




Job instructions
Job rationale
Feedback
Horizontal communication:
Occurs between people
who don’t have direct
supervisor-subordinate
relationships.



Task coordination
Sharing information
Conflict resolution
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Formal and Informal Relationships


Informal communication:
Friendships, shared
personal or career
interests, proximity.
Informal messages
supplement formal
messages:


Confirmation
Often more efficient and
accurate
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Face-to-Face and
Mediated Relationships

Virtual teams


Groups that operate
electronically can
communicate in ways that
otherwise wouldn’t be
possible.
Communication medium
has advantages and
drawbacks.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Interplay
Section 7
RELATIONSHIPS IN WORK GROUPS
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Personal Skills in Work Groups


Relational skills as important as task-related skills
Relational roles (Benne & Sheats)







Encouraging participation
Harmonizing
Relieving tension
Evaluating the group’s emotional climate
Giving praise
Listening thoughtfully to the concerns of others
Best teams struggle on the path to consensus




Orientation: harmony/politeness
Conflict
Emergence: members enthusiastically or reluctantly accept team’s decision.
Reinforcement
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Group Cultures

Organizational cultures



Relatively stable, shared rules
about how to behave and set
of values about what is
important
“The way things are around
here.”
Dimensions of communication





Sociability
Distribution of power
Tolerance for new ideas
Ways of managing conflict
Emotional support
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Leadership, Power, and Influence in
Working Groups

Designated leader


Person (people) with official titles
that indicate authority.
Every member of a working
team has at least one resource
of power that affects the group.




Expert power: Designated leaders
aren’t always the best or only
experts.
Reward power: Members can
bestow their own rewards.
Coercive power: Anyone can
“punish.”
Referent power: Influence that
comes from members’ mutual liking
and respect.
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Interplay
END OF SECTION
Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor
Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.