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Important for: 1) vertical and horizontal
information movement; 2) atmosphere of
openness; 3) concern for the opinions of others
A banking executive said most managers
“cannot write a letter, make a compelling
presentation, or put together a speech that
doesn’t have half the audience looking at their
It’s both oral and written!
I. Communication Process Model
A. Sender needs skill and knowledge
B. Encoding – some are more effective at using
language symbols than others (e.g. syllabus)
C. Message – may have more than 1 meaning
D. Channel is medium – medium should match
message. Face-to-face enables feedback, facial
expression, and the intended message to be
more accurately sent.
I. Communication Process Model
E. Decoding – receiver “translates”
message. What you attend to, encode,
store, and retrieve influences how you
perceive the message. Perception may not
be reality!
F. Feedback – comprehension check. Was
the intended message communicated?
G. Noise – interferes with the message
II. Choosing media
A. Is it rich? Does the medium allow the
intended message to be communicated?
(face to face [2-way] is richest). Each
medium has “information carrying
B. Which medium is right? The message
complexity suggests a medium with a
particular richness. Use medium
contingent upon the message complexity.
Problem Complexity
III. Nonverbal Communication
What does it look like?
How much is communicated?
IV. Barriers to Effective
Filtering – information reduction by sender
Selective perception – what you attend to
Judging message
Not listening with understanding (Covey)
Information overload
V. Overcoming Barriers
A. Solicit feedback – request information
of message, restate in own words,
performance appraisals, look for nonverbal
B. Simplified language
C. Active listening – including empathy
VI. Developing interpersonal skills
Biggest reason for job failure is interpersonal
skills. Study showed graduates are most
deficient in leadership and interpersonal skills.
– Active listening
Listen intensely – eyes, head nods, avoid distractions,
show interest, don’t interrupt
Use empathy – adjust to your speaker’s world
Acceptance – don’t formulate response in mid-speak
Responsibility for completeness – paraphrase
VII. Feedback
A. Must establish culture of trust and respect
before constructive feedback is accepted
– Effective feedback
Focus on behavior
Goal oriented
Timely – more than 1 time each year
Controllable (Deming?)