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Election of 1800
1796 Election Results
Key Issues
• Jefferson un-Christian (deist)
• DR- sympathy for French
Revolution would bring similar
chaos to the United States
• Wanted strong federal authority to
restrain the excesses of popular
• Represented merchants and
• Denounced the strong centralized
federal power.
• Objected to the expansion of US
Army and Navy
• Fed- attack on individual rightsalien and sedition acts
• Opposed new taxes and deficit
• Reduce national authority so
people could rule more directly
through state government
• Represented states’ rights, antifederalists
• Urban workers and artisans
• James Madison
1800 Election Results
(16 states in the Union)
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
New York
John Adams
Charles Pinckney
South Carolina
John Jay
New York
Total Number of Electors
Total Electoral Votes Cast
Number of Votes for a
Election was deadlocked w/ Jefferson and BurrSo in case of a tie then what?
Off to the House of Representatives
1. Federalists could block selection, but couldn’t elect
one themselves
2. Hamilton couldn’t stand Burr because of their old
rivalry in New York (politics). Chose Jeffersonlesser of 2 evils.
3. Hamilton urged the Federalists to
elect Jefferson, which they did on the
36th ballot
What impact did this have on the Constitution?
Twelfth Amendment
Passed by Congress: 9 December 1803
Ratified: 15 June 1804
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an
inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person
voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President,
and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all
the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest
numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the
President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next
following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having
the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed,
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the
purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
Candidates must stand for either one office or the other but not
for both, Prevented a President and vice president from
opposing parties serving together (unless by choice)
Impact of the three-fifths clause
• If slaves had not been counted, Adams would
have won
• Jefferson was subsequently criticized as
having won “the temple of Liberty on the
shoulders of slaves”
Louisiana Purchase
• According to Jefferson, who were the
“chosen people of God?”
• What does this have to do with the
Louisiana Purchase?
Events which lead to the
Louisiana Purchase
• Settlement of Kentucky, Tennessee and upper Ohio
Valley (farmers) importance of Mississippi River and
New Orleans
• France transferred Louisiana to Spain in 1763 but
took it back in 1800 (Treaty of San Ildefonso)
• Napoleon hoped to annex Florida and French
Guiana, but he needed French Hispaniola to continue
his plans, and he sent his brother-in-law, General
Charles Leclerc, to secure the island.
• Overture lead independence movement, in 1802 and
1803, Napoleon lost 40,000 men
Needed money to fund
his war with England
Events which lead to the
Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson feared French reacquisition of
Louisiana and sent James Monroe and Robert
Livingston to acquire New Orleans and Florida
Hey do we have a deal for you
• Purchase all of
Louisiana including New
Orleans but not Florida.
• $15 million(about $283
million in today's dollars)
• 828,000 square miles
• 3 cents per acre
• Approved by the Senate
(checks and balances)
Louisiana Purchase
All but which of the following are true about
the Louisiana Purchase?
(A) the United States doubled in size
(B) the power of the presidency was increased
(C) the influence of France in the Western
Hemisphere increased following its sale
(D) Spain had ceded the territory to France in
the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800
(E) Federalists believed the expansion of the
nation would dilute their political power
(C) the influence of France in the Western Hemisphere increased following its
Despite being a strict constructionist, President Jefferson could not pass on the
opportunity to purchase Louisiana from France. The addition of this huge amount
of territory doomed the eastern-seaboard based Federalist Party. Napoleon's
focus on his European campaigns rather than the Caribbean proved to be of
tremendous help to the Democrat-Republican Party while doubling the size of the
United States.
Louisiana Purchase
James Monroe and Robert
Livingston agreed on terms for
Louisiana with Comte
Talleyrand in 1803
Which of the following statements about the Louisiana
Purchase is accurate?
A) the borders of the new territory were not exactly
B) residents were allowed to create not less than
three, nor more than five states in the new territory
C) Jefferson's actions in purchasing the land were
completely consistent with his strict constructionist
D) most Americans felt the asking price by France
was exorbitant
E) no one argued that the purchase was
A) the borders of the new territory were not exactly defined
Explanation: The Louisiana Purchase borders were not clearly defined and it would
take almost 20 years for the U.S. to establish full claims on the new American lands.
On the Southwest, the border was with Spanish Mexico. On the Northwest and North,
the border was the land area that drains into the Mississippi River (which includes the
land area that drains into the Missouri River, among others). Part of the mission of the
Lewis and Clark Expedition was to find that border.
Which of the following was the reason
many Federalists opposed the
westward expansion created by the
Louisiana Purchase?
Federalists and the Louisiana Purchase
A) Pres. Washington had warned
against it in his Farewell Address
B) the cost was too high
C) they foresaw the growing political
strength of southern and western
Democrat-Republican sections
D) they favored the purchase of Florida
over the purchase of western lands
E) westward expansion would lead to
conflict with Spain and Great Britain
C) they foresaw the growing political strength of southern and western DemocratRepublican sections
Explanation: Federalists recognized that adding states to the west would increase the
influence of the Democrat-Republicans as those new regions would not be fallow ground for
Federalist policies. The Louisiana Purchase, in addition to being one of the great real estate
bargains in history, effectively doomed the Federalist Party.
Lewis &
Lewis and Clark Expedition
• Objectives
– Scientific exploration
– Trade relations with western Indians
– Commercial route to Asia
(Northwest Passage)
Lewis and Clark Expedition
• Outcomes
– Abundant information on newly acquired
– Achievement of overland travel to Pacific
(Oregon Trail)
Lewis & Clark Corps of
Lewis and Clark completed their remarkable trip
with the invaluable
assistance of Sacagawea, a translator and guide
The Lewis and Clark expedition
(A) was composed of 400 men
(B) traveled the length of the Mississippi River
(C) faced very few difficulties in their trip to the
West Coast
(D) divided into two exploration groups on the
return trip, with Lewis leading one and Clark
the other, finally rejoining in what is now North
(E) were confronted on their journey by
(D) divided into two exploration
groups on the return trip, with Lewis Spanish soldiers tipped off by General James
Wilkinson, a double agent of the U.S. and Spain
leading one and Clark the other,
finally rejoining in what is now North
•Should have the
Louisiana Purchase
been approved or
Embargo Acts
• What were the causes?
– Practice of Impressment
• Jefferson’s Embargo Act (1807)
– Ban on all American Vessels sailing for
foreign ports
– How did this negatively effect American
Anglo-British Relations
The most prominent issue in relations between the U.S.
and Great Britain during the Jeffersonian Era was
A) impressment of British sailors
B) American neutral rights in international waters
C) incomplete payments to British loyalists for
confiscated property
D) the border between Canada and the U.S.
E) failure of the British to evacuate forts in the
B) American neutral rights in international waters
Explanation: One of the key issues that led to the War of 1812 was British interference
with American shipping in the years leading up to it. Jefferson enacted the 1807
Embargo Act in an attempt to prevent both British and French seizure of American
cargoes and crews. The Act placed a huge economic burden on the American people
and was finally revoked in 1809.
Jefferson's Response to Impressment
Alarmed by impressment and increasing British interference with American
shipping, President Jefferson
(A) chose to follow Pres. Washington's model of steering a neutral course
(B) imposed an economic embargo with disastrous economic results
(C) gained tremendous political support in New England for his strong stand
against the actions of the British navy
(D) used the power of marque and reprisal to arm privateers and harass British
(E) did nothing
(B) imposed an economic embargo with
disastrous economic results
Jefferson responded to increasingly troubling British
actions by imposing the 1807 Embargo Act which
effectively eliminated legal trade with both Great
Britain and France. The Act proved disastrous for the
New England and mid-Atlantic merchants who
depended on European trade and increased the
smuggling of goods. One unexpected consequence
was the growth in American manufacturing which for
several years did not have significant competition
from European manufacturers.
Judicial Review
John Marshall
Marbury vs. Madison
Fletcher vs. Peck
Checks and Balances
The Case of the
Midnight Judges
John Marshall quote at the U.S.
Supreme Court building
In the 1803 Marbury v. Madison decision, the
Supreme Court
(A) established the principle that the federal
government had more authority than state
(B) allowed the Federalist judges appointed
by outgoing President John Adams to take
their positions
(C) determined it did not have the power to
rule a law of Congress to be
(D) established the tradition of judicial
review and became an equally powerful
branch of the federal government
(E) acknowledged its inferior role to both
Congress and the president
(D) established the tradition of judicial review and
became an equally powerful branch of the federal
By refusing to allow the last-minute "Midnight Judges"
appointments of outgoing Federalist John Adams, Chief
Justice John Marshall established the principle of judicial
review by overruling a law of Congress(the Judiciary Act
of 1789). While Jefferson's Democrat-Republican judges
assumed office, this decision in fact was a huge victory
for those desiring a more powerful judicial branch, which
now had the authority to challenge both the laws of
Congress and the actions of the president, as in U.S. v.
Nixon, in which President Richard Nixon was required to
turn over Watergate tapes to a special prosecutor
appointed by Congress.
Jefferson's Legacy
Which of the following three
accomplishments of Thomas
Jefferson did he value so
highly that he asked that they
be listed on his tombstone?
I. Declaration of Independence
II. Governor of Virginia
III. Virginia Statute of Religious
Answer: (B) I, III, and VII
IV. Kentucky Resolution
V. President of the U.S.
Jefferson directed that the three things he wanted inscribed
VI. Acquired Louisiana from
on his tombstone were "Author of the Declaration of
American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for
Religious Freedom, and father of the University of Virginia." VII. Founder of the University
of Virginia
While serving as Secretary of State, Vice-President, and
President, Jefferson considered those roles less significant
than the three he chose. Of the Statute for Religious
Freedom, passed in 1786 (nine years after he drafted it),
Jefferson's friend and presidential successor James
Madison wrote: [it] "extinguished forever the ambitious hope
of making laws for the human mind."
(A) I, V, and VI
(B) I, III, and VII
(C) I, IV, and V
(D) II, V, and VI
(E) I, V, and VII
• Compare the success and failures of
Jefferson’s 2 terms as President.
• Then how would you rate Jefferson as a