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Thomas Jefferson Beginning of Virginia Dynasty Election of 1800 Federalist Vs. Democrat Republicans 1796 Election Results Adams Jefferson Key Issues Federalist • Jefferson un-Christian (deist) • DR- sympathy for French Revolution would bring similar chaos to the United States • Wanted strong federal authority to restrain the excesses of popular majorities • Represented merchants and manufactures Democratic-Republicans • Denounced the strong centralized federal power. • Objected to the expansion of US Army and Navy • Fed- attack on individual rightsalien and sedition acts • Opposed new taxes and deficit spending • Reduce national authority so people could rule more directly through state government • Represented states’ rights, antifederalists • Urban workers and artisans • James Madison 1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union) Thomas Jefferson Virginia DemocraticRepublican 73 52.9% Aaron Burr New York DemocraticRepublican 73 52.9% John Adams Massachusetts Federalist 65 47.1% Charles Pinckney South Carolina Federalist 64 46.4% John Jay New York Federalist 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors 138 Total Electoral Votes Cast 276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70 Election was deadlocked w/ Jefferson and BurrSo in case of a tie then what? Off to the House of Representatives 1. Federalists could block selection, but couldn’t elect one themselves 2. Hamilton couldn’t stand Burr because of their old rivalry in New York (politics). Chose Jeffersonlesser of 2 evils. 3. Hamilton urged the Federalists to elect Jefferson, which they did on the 36th ballot What impact did this have on the Constitution? Twelfth Amendment Passed by Congress: 9 December 1803 Ratified: 15 June 1804 The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. Candidates must stand for either one office or the other but not for both, Prevented a President and vice president from opposing parties serving together (unless by choice) Impact of the three-fifths clause • If slaves had not been counted, Adams would have won • Jefferson was subsequently criticized as having won “the temple of Liberty on the shoulders of slaves” Louisiana Purchase • According to Jefferson, who were the “chosen people of God?” • What does this have to do with the Louisiana Purchase? Events which lead to the Louisiana Purchase • Settlement of Kentucky, Tennessee and upper Ohio Valley (farmers) importance of Mississippi River and New Orleans • France transferred Louisiana to Spain in 1763 but took it back in 1800 (Treaty of San Ildefonso) • Napoleon hoped to annex Florida and French Guiana, but he needed French Hispaniola to continue his plans, and he sent his brother-in-law, General Charles Leclerc, to secure the island. • Overture lead independence movement, in 1802 and 1803, Napoleon lost 40,000 men Napoleon Needed money to fund his war with England Events which lead to the Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson feared French reacquisition of Louisiana and sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to acquire New Orleans and Florida Hey do we have a deal for you • Purchase all of Louisiana including New Orleans but not Florida. • $15 million(about $283 million in today's dollars) • 828,000 square miles • 3 cents per acre • Approved by the Senate (checks and balances) Louisiana Purchase • All but which of the following are true about the Louisiana Purchase? • • • (A) the United States doubled in size (B) the power of the presidency was increased (C) the influence of France in the Western Hemisphere increased following its sale (D) Spain had ceded the territory to France in the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800 (E) Federalists believed the expansion of the nation would dilute their political power • • Answer: (C) the influence of France in the Western Hemisphere increased following its sale Explanation: Despite being a strict constructionist, President Jefferson could not pass on the opportunity to purchase Louisiana from France. The addition of this huge amount of territory doomed the eastern-seaboard based Federalist Party. Napoleon's focus on his European campaigns rather than the Caribbean proved to be of tremendous help to the Democrat-Republican Party while doubling the size of the United States. Louisiana Purchase James Monroe and Robert Livingston agreed on terms for Louisiana with Comte Talleyrand in 1803 Which of the following statements about the Louisiana Purchase is accurate? A) the borders of the new territory were not exactly defined B) residents were allowed to create not less than three, nor more than five states in the new territory C) Jefferson's actions in purchasing the land were completely consistent with his strict constructionist approach D) most Americans felt the asking price by France was exorbitant E) no one argued that the purchase was unconstitutional Answer: A) the borders of the new territory were not exactly defined Explanation: The Louisiana Purchase borders were not clearly defined and it would take almost 20 years for the U.S. to establish full claims on the new American lands. On the Southwest, the border was with Spanish Mexico. On the Northwest and North, the border was the land area that drains into the Mississippi River (which includes the land area that drains into the Missouri River, among others). Part of the mission of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was to find that border. Which of the following was the reason many Federalists opposed the westward expansion created by the Louisiana Purchase? Federalists and the Louisiana Purchase A) Pres. Washington had warned against it in his Farewell Address B) the cost was too high C) they foresaw the growing political strength of southern and western Democrat-Republican sections D) they favored the purchase of Florida over the purchase of western lands E) westward expansion would lead to conflict with Spain and Great Britain Answer: C) they foresaw the growing political strength of southern and western DemocratRepublican sections Explanation: Federalists recognized that adding states to the west would increase the influence of the Democrat-Republicans as those new regions would not be fallow ground for Federalist policies. The Louisiana Purchase, in addition to being one of the great real estate bargains in history, effectively doomed the Federalist Party. Lewis & Clark Lewis and Clark Expedition • Objectives – Scientific exploration – Trade relations with western Indians – Commercial route to Asia (Northwest Passage) Lewis and Clark Expedition • Outcomes – Abundant information on newly acquired territory – Achievement of overland travel to Pacific (Oregon Trail) Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark completed their remarkable trip with the invaluable assistance of Sacagawea, a translator and guide The Lewis and Clark expedition (A) was composed of 400 men (B) traveled the length of the Mississippi River (C) faced very few difficulties in their trip to the West Coast (D) divided into two exploration groups on the return trip, with Lewis leading one and Clark the other, finally rejoining in what is now North Dakota Answer: (E) were confronted on their journey by (D) divided into two exploration groups on the return trip, with Lewis Spanish soldiers tipped off by General James Wilkinson, a double agent of the U.S. and Spain leading one and Clark the other, finally rejoining in what is now North Dakota •Should have the Louisiana Purchase been approved or opposed? Embargo Acts • What were the causes? – Practice of Impressment • Jefferson’s Embargo Act (1807) – Ban on all American Vessels sailing for foreign ports – How did this negatively effect American Commerce? Anglo-British Relations The most prominent issue in relations between the U.S. and Great Britain during the Jeffersonian Era was A) impressment of British sailors B) American neutral rights in international waters C) incomplete payments to British loyalists for confiscated property D) the border between Canada and the U.S. E) failure of the British to evacuate forts in the northwest Answer: B) American neutral rights in international waters Explanation: One of the key issues that led to the War of 1812 was British interference with American shipping in the years leading up to it. Jefferson enacted the 1807 Embargo Act in an attempt to prevent both British and French seizure of American cargoes and crews. The Act placed a huge economic burden on the American people and was finally revoked in 1809. Jefferson's Response to Impressment Alarmed by impressment and increasing British interference with American shipping, President Jefferson (A) chose to follow Pres. Washington's model of steering a neutral course (B) imposed an economic embargo with disastrous economic results (C) gained tremendous political support in New England for his strong stand against the actions of the British navy (D) used the power of marque and reprisal to arm privateers and harass British ships Answer: (E) did nothing (B) imposed an economic embargo with disastrous economic results Explanation: Jefferson responded to increasingly troubling British actions by imposing the 1807 Embargo Act which effectively eliminated legal trade with both Great Britain and France. The Act proved disastrous for the New England and mid-Atlantic merchants who depended on European trade and increased the smuggling of goods. One unexpected consequence was the growth in American manufacturing which for several years did not have significant competition from European manufacturers. Judicial Review • • • • John Marshall Marbury vs. Madison Fletcher vs. Peck Checks and Balances The Case of the Midnight Judges John Marshall quote at the U.S. Supreme Court building In the 1803 Marbury v. Madison decision, the Answer: Supreme Court (A) established the principle that the federal government had more authority than state governments (B) allowed the Federalist judges appointed by outgoing President John Adams to take their positions (C) determined it did not have the power to rule a law of Congress to be unconstitutional (D) established the tradition of judicial review and became an equally powerful branch of the federal government (E) acknowledged its inferior role to both Congress and the president (D) established the tradition of judicial review and became an equally powerful branch of the federal government Explanation: By refusing to allow the last-minute "Midnight Judges" appointments of outgoing Federalist John Adams, Chief Justice John Marshall established the principle of judicial review by overruling a law of Congress(the Judiciary Act of 1789). While Jefferson's Democrat-Republican judges assumed office, this decision in fact was a huge victory for those desiring a more powerful judicial branch, which now had the authority to challenge both the laws of Congress and the actions of the president, as in U.S. v. Nixon, in which President Richard Nixon was required to turn over Watergate tapes to a special prosecutor appointed by Congress. Jefferson's Legacy Which of the following three accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson did he value so highly that he asked that they be listed on his tombstone? I. Declaration of Independence II. Governor of Virginia III. Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom Answer: (B) I, III, and VII IV. Kentucky Resolution Explanation: V. President of the U.S. Jefferson directed that the three things he wanted inscribed VI. Acquired Louisiana from on his tombstone were "Author of the Declaration of France American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, and father of the University of Virginia." VII. Founder of the University of Virginia While serving as Secretary of State, Vice-President, and President, Jefferson considered those roles less significant than the three he chose. Of the Statute for Religious Freedom, passed in 1786 (nine years after he drafted it), Jefferson's friend and presidential successor James Madison wrote: [it] "extinguished forever the ambitious hope of making laws for the human mind." (A) I, V, and VI (B) I, III, and VII (C) I, IV, and V (D) II, V, and VI (E) I, V, and VII Homework • Compare the success and failures of Jefferson’s 2 terms as President. • Then how would you rate Jefferson as a President?