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Chapter 22
Section 2
The Spanish-American War
American Interests in Cuba
• Spanish power was crumbling; few colonies
remained; Philippine Islands, Caribbean
islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
• Cubans revolted against Spain.
• Spain treated rebels harshly. Cubans
forced from homes thousands die of
Jose Marti
• Fought for Cuban independence
Think about this quote….what is it saying?
“ Cuba’s children……suffer in indescribable bitterness
as they see their fertile nation enchained and also
their human dignity stifled……all for the necessities
and vices of the Spanish Monarchy”-Jose Marti
quoted in Jose Marti,Mentor of the Cuban Nation
• Americans were alarmed by Spain’s
brutality; businesses were concerned about
disruption of U.S. trade.
• N.Y. World (Pulitzer) N.Y.Journal (Hearst)
competed for readers by exaggerating
Cuban horror stories in the newspapers.
• Yellow journalism – sensationalized
(dramatized) style of writing.
Steps to War
• American opinion forced President
McKinley to take action. (1898)
• Sent U.S.S. Maine to Havana, Cuba to protect U.S.
• Feb. 15th – the ship randomly exploded and sank.
• “Remember the Maine” became a call to arms.
• Congressional resolution called for Cuba’s
independence; Spain cut off diplomatic relations.
On April 25, 1898, the United States
war on Spain, even though there was no
evidence that Spain attacked the Maine. The
slogan of the war?
“Remember the Maine!”
The Battles for the Philippines and
• 1st battle of the Spanish-American War in
the Philippines.
• Commodore George Dewey with support of
Filipino rebel Emilio Aguinaldo destroyed
the Spanish fleet in 7 hours.
• Dewey an instant hero; “Dewey’s Chewies”
The War in the Caribbean
• Theodore Roosevelt organized the First U.S.
Volunteer Cavalry; Rough Riders.
• Diverse group of men; cowboys, miners, college
students, policemen, athletes, Native Americans.
• Captured San Juan Hill, Cuba to gain control of
Santiago’s port. This was a quick victory for the
United States.
• Treaty of Paris (1898) – gave U.S. control of Cuba,
Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines.
Theodore Roosevelt
*popular man
*elected to
public positions
* Became Vice
* President
was assassinated in
1901, Theodore
Roosevelt became
President of the
United States.
• President Roosevelt steered the United
States more actively into world politics. He
liked to quote a favorite proverb, "Speak
softly and carry a big stick, and you will go
The New American Empire
• Philippines did not want to be a U.S
colony and rebelled with Aguinaldo;
not put down until 1902. (independent 1946)
• Cuba was forced to add the Platt
Amendment to its constitution; U.S.
could intervene anytime there was a
threat to “life,property, and individual
liberty.” (terminated 1936)
• Puerto Rico became an American
• Anti-Imperialist League was formed,
but not supported by the American