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Exploring American History Unit X – Post War America Chapter 27 – Section 1 Adjusting to Peace Adjusting to Peace The Big Idea After World War II, Americans adjusted to new challenges both at home and around the world. Main Ideas • As World War II ended, leaders began planning the future of the postwar world. • The United States and the Soviet Union went from being allies to enemies after World War II. • Americans adjusted to postwar life. Harry S. Truman: One of America's Most Effective Presidents (02:58) Main Idea 1: As World War II ended, leaders began planning the future of the postwar world. Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference • Leaders met to discuss Europe’s future. • Allied leaders divided conquered Germany into four zones. • Supported creation of international peacekeeping organization • Agreed on free elections for countries liberated from German control • Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union would each control one zone. • Berlin also divided into four zones War Crimes Trials • The Nuremberg trials put highranking Nazi officials on trial. • The International Military Tribunal of the Far East put Japanese officials on trial. • Established that individuals must be held responsible for committing war crimes, even when acting on behalf of a government Yalta Conference -February 12, 1945 (02:42) Military Leaders Face Trial for War Crimes (01:20) The Nuremburg Trials and the Lessons of World War II (00:49) The United Nations In 1944, American, British, Soviet, and Chinese representatives met to draft a plan for the United Nations– an organization dedicated to resolving international conflicts. In 1945, representatives from 50 countries met to write the UN Charter. One of its first major actions was to divide Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states. May 14, 1948– Jewish leaders announced the creation of nation of Israel. Arab leaders protested and invaded. Israeli forces drove Arabs back and a truce was made. The Birth of the United Nations and Post-War Recovery (01:51) The Future of the Postwar World Recall – What was the result of the Potsdam Conference? Analyze – What legal principle was established at the Nuremberg and Japanese International Military Tribunals? Evaluate – Why do you think France was not represented at the Yalta Conference? The Future of the Postwar World Explain – For what purpose was the United Nations founded? Summarize – How did Israel become an independent nation? Main Idea 2: The United States and the Soviet Union went from being allies to enemies after World War II. From Allies to Enemies After the war, differences arose between United States and Soviet Union. Americans committed to capitalism and democracy Soviets hoped to spread communism around the world. The Iron Curtain Stalin established Communist governments in Poland and Eastern Europe, cutting them off from the rest of the world. The term iron curtain came to be used to describe this division. The phrase Cold War came to be used to describe the struggle for global power between the Soviet Union and the United States. The Cold War Begins (04:51) U.S. Foreign Policy Goal– containment, or preventing the Soviet Union from expanding its influence around the world Truman Doctrine– policy of providing aid to help foreign countries fight communism Marshall Plan– Western Europe received more than $13 billion in U.S. loans and grants for European economic recovery between 1948 and 1952. North Atlantic Treaty Organization– a coalition of the United States, nine Western European countries, Canada, and Iceland. – Members promised to defend each other if attacked. – Soviet Union responded by creating Warsaw Pact, a military alliance with its Eastern European satellite countries. The Truman Doctrine (02:37) The Marshall Plan (03:05) Berlin Airlift - June 30, 1948 (02:46) From Allies to Enemies Describe – What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine? Make Inferences – How did the Marshall fit with the goals of the Truman Doctrine? Evaluate – Why do you think Soviet Leaders did not Eastern European nations to accept aid from the Marshall Plan ? Main Idea 3: Americans adjusted to postwar life. Economy Labor Government urged women to give up their jobs once veterans returned. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, or GI Bill of Rights, offered veterans money for school, as well as loans for houses, farms, and businesses. Inflation rose as people rushed to buy products that were limited during war. More than 35 percent of non-farm workers were union members in 1946. With inflation on rise, many went on strike. Labor unions became a major political problem. Government worked to reduce power of labor unions. Passed the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 that outlawed closed shops, or business that could hire only union members. w e r e p a i d b y G I s b o r r o w i n g o n t h e i r G I B i l l a t a v e r y l o w i n t e r e s t r a t e . T h o u s a n G.I. Bill- Servicemen’s Readjustment Act "That GI Bill was the best piece of legislation ever passed by the US Congress, and it made modern America. The educational establishment boomed. The suburbs, starting with Levittown and others, were paid by GIs borrowing on their GI Bill at a very low interest rate. Thousands and thousands of small businesses were started in this country and are still there thanks to the loans from the GI Bill. It transformed our country." — Historian Steven Ambrose G.I. Bill of Rights Revolutionary War Veterans' benefits- life-long pensions for disabled veterans and dependents of soldiers killed in battle. June 22, 1944- "Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944," or"GI Bill of Rights.” War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Indian wars, and the Spanish-American War Benefits- common type was "mustering out" pay. Also land grants to vets. Rehabilitation Act of 1919 veterans disabled in World War I a monthly education assistance allowance education and training loan guaranty for a home, farm, or business unemployment pay of $20 a week for up to 52 weeks job-finding assistance top priority for building materials for VA hospitals military review of dishonorable discharges World War II veteran had to serve 90 days or more after Sept. 16, 1940. Total cost of the World War II education program was $14.5 billion $500 a year for tuition, books, fees, and other training costs. 2,230,000 in college 3,480,000 in other schools 1,400,000 in on-job training 690,000 in farm training G.I. Bill of Rights Korean Conflict GI Bill Public Law 550, the "Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952, " was approved by President Truman on July 16, 1952. To be eligible for Korean GI Bill benefits, a veteran had to: Post-Korean - Vietnam Era GI Bill Home and farm loans, job counseling, and an employment placement service were other benefits provided to veterans, who served between August 5, 1964, and May 7, 1975. Veterans had to serve more than 180 continuous days. By 1984 Veterans were receiving about $376/month for education- training, books and tuition. serve 90 days or more after June 27, 1950, enter service before Feb. 1, 1955, and receive an other than dishonorable discharge. Total cost of the Korean Conflict GI Bill education and training program was $4.5 billion. 1,213,000 in institutions of higher learning 860,000 in other schools 223,000 on the job 95,000 in institutional on-farm training VA spent more than $42 billion during this time to provide educational assistance. 5.1 million in colleges 2.5 million in other schools 591,000 on the job 56,000 in on farm training G.I. Bill of Rights Current Montgomery GI Bill--Active Duty (MGIB): To help the members of the Armed Forces adjust to civilian life after separation from service To give those who cannot afford a higher education the chance to get one To restore lost educational opportunities and vocational readjustment to service members who lost these opportunities as the result of their active military duty To promote and assist the All-Volunteer Force program of the Armed Forces To aid in the retention of personnel in the Armed Forces To enhance our Nation's competitiveness through the development of a more highly educated and productive work force The following briefly summarizes major MGIB provisions: Served on active duty after June 30, 1985. Must fulfill one's basic service obligation. Must have completed high school. Received an honorable discharge. Maximum entitlement is 36 months. Additional "kicker" as determined by DOD. Generally must use benefits within 10 years following discharge. Civil Rights after the War African American veterans faced segregation and prejudice at home. Truman appointed Committee on Civil Rights to investigate discrimination and suggest solutions. Helped lead a major effort to gain equal rights Congress failed to act on the committee’s report. In 1948 Truman issued an executive order to End segregation in the armed forces, and Ban discrimination in the hiring of federal employees. Executive Order 9981 Executive Order No. 9981 issued by President Truman provided for "equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." This was the first time that a president used an executive order to implement civil rights principles and was a major victory for civil rights advocates in the quest for full citizenship. Despite these orders, full integration of African Americans in the armed services was carried out slowly. It was not until the end of the Korean conflict that full integration of the armed forces had been achieved. Taft-Hartley Act - 1947 When it was passed by Congress over Truman’s veto, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal. Permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. Forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. Gave the United States Attorney General the power to obtain an 80 day injunction when a threatened or actual strike that he/she believed "imperiled the national health or safety". Election of 1948 President Truman faced many challenges for reelection. Southern Democrats opposed his support for civil rights laws. Republicans controlled Congress and felt their candidate, New York governor Thomas Dewey, could beat Truman. Truman took his case for reelection to the American people. Traveled thousands of miles and gave hundreds of speeches Defended his views and attacked Congress In 1948 election, Truman won a surprise victory. Urged Congress to support his plan for a package of domestic programs called the Fair Deal Congress approved some parts, including higher minimum wage and expanded Social Security benefits. Congress rejected other parts, including civil rights legislation. Election of 1948 and Thomas E. Dewey Election of 1948-World Issues, shortages, strikes, Democrat Candidate- Truman - IssuesRepeal Taft-Hartly, Act; Recognize Israel: Strong Civil Rights legislation needed (an issue that split the party); Anti-lynching; Fair employment and end segregation in military. The upheaval at the July convention led to Democratic splinter-party presidential candidates: J. Strom Thurmond ran on the State's Rights ticket, known more familiarly as the "Dixiecrats," and Henry Wallace ran on the Progressive Ticket(Convinced that liberals and Communists could work together. Repeal the draft; strong civil rights; cooperate with Russia; ban the bomb.) Republican Candidate- Dewey - Issues“Time for a change”; Approved some New Deal policies; and wanted bipartisan foreign policy The Election By election day, the polls showed that Truman had managed to cut Dewey's lead, but all media sources still believed Dewey would win by a landslide. As the reports filtered in that night, Truman was ahead in the popular votes, but the newscasters still believed Truman didn't have a chance. By four the next morning, Truman's success seemed undeniable. At 10:14 a.m., Dewey conceded the election to Truman. The final results: Popular States Electoral Harry S. Truman: 24,105,812 28 303 Thomas E. Dewey: 21,970,065 16 189 Strom Thurmond: 1,169,021 4 39 Henry A. Wallace: 1,157,172 0 0 Fair Deal New civil rights legislation Federal housing programs Unemployment insurance benefits New tax cuts for the poor Federal funding for education A federal health care and health insurance program In the end, Truman's attempt to introduce his Fair Deal was largely a failure. Few of his initiatives became law. Congress refused to create a national health care program, did little to reform education (with the exception of the G. I. Bill), extended unemployment benefits only slightly, and put off new civil rights legislation. Postwar America Describe – What happened to the American economy at the end of the war? Recall – What was another name for the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act and what was its purpose? Predict – How do you think women who had been employed in good paying jobs during the war might have felt about the government’s request that they give up their jobs? Postwar America Recall – How did President Truman end the 1946 mine and railroad strikes? Summarize – How did Truman advance the civil rights movement? Develop – Why do you think the president decided to issue an executive order to end segregation in the armed forces? Postwar America Summarize – What was the Fair Deal? Evaluate – Why do you think Truman used the term Fair Deal for his domestic policy?