Download Goal 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Francophobia wikipedia, lookup

Adam Kokesh wikipedia, lookup

United States non-interventionism wikipedia, lookup

George Washington's Farewell Address wikipedia, lookup

Presidency of George Washington wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Goal 1
Part I
Launching the New Nation
Articles of Confederation


*First attempt at a national government
Problems / Weaknesses
No power to tax states (DEBT BUILDS UP)
 No power to regulate trade / commerce
 No national currency
 No federal laws
 No executive branch
* What event proved that the government under the Articles of
Confederation was ineffective and needed to be
changed?______________

Federalist v. Anti-Federalist

Federalist – supported a strong central
government/ supported balance between
state and national government


What level of government would gain power?
Anti-Federalist – opposed a strong national /
central government

What level of government would gain power?
Washington
1788 - 1796
2 Problems as President
 (1) Creating a new government
 (2) Finding UNITY and TRUST
with the American people

“We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to
guide us.”
- James Madison
(Father of the Constitution and 4th Pres. of the U.S.)
Washington’s creation of the
“Executive Branch”
PURPOSE: to carry or execute laws

3 Executive departments
(1) Department of State – foreign affairs
(Thomas Jefferson)
(2) Department of War – military affairs (Henry Knox)
(3) Department of Treasury – manage finances
(Alexander Hamilton)
 (Chief Lawyer of the Federal Court = Edmund Rudolph)
These 4 make up the “CABINET” – chief advisors under the
president
***Judiciary Act of 1789***
Creation of the Judicial System & the Supreme
Court
- Judicial System – interprets the laws
- Supreme Court is “Law of the Land”
S.C. = 1 Chief Justice and 5 Assistant Justices
 - State court decisions were appealed to the
Federal Court system when “Constitutional” issues
were raised.
-
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate /
Conflict

ALEXANDER HAMILTON
- supported a strong national government
- favored by the NORTH (BANKERS / LANDOWNERS/ $)
* LOOSE interpretation of the Constitution
- FEDERALISTS

THOMAS JEFFERSON
- supported a state government
- favored by the SOUTH (FARMERS/ Poor)
-*STRICT interpretation of the Constitution
- Anti-Federalist / Jeffersonian /
DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
MAIN RESULT OF HAMILTON AND
JEFFERSON DEBATE /
DIFFERENCES
Result: “Split of the cabinet” – fought over the
power and size of the federal government
 Created the *TWO PARTY SYSTEM*
WASHINGTON HATES THE TWO PARTY
SYSTEM
MOST SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM
AMERICA FACED = DEBT!!!!!!!!!!

Hamilton’s 4 Part Plan
(1) Paying off all debts in full. “Funding at Par”
Important: Respect from international markets and countries
*Assumption: the Federal Government will “assume” all state debts as well
Important: shows a sign of stability / simple unity
PROBLEM: Massachusetts had a HUGE debt and liked the idea, but Virginia had
a small debt and didn’t like the “assumption process”
Outcome: The “ASSUMPTION CLAUSE” was passed and Virginia was promised
the NEW National Capital of Washington D.C. on the Potomac River (border
of Maryland and Virginia)
Hamilton’s view on Debt: good thing ! *Why:___________________
(2) A tariff (tax on imports) ____________________________
(3) A tax on whiskey _________________________________
(4) A National Bank
Main question: how can a “poor” country pay off $75 million of debt ?????
HAMILTON’S
ECONOMIC PLAN
- planned to manage the country’s (NATIONAL AND
STATE) debt and set a up a national banking system
 **BANK OF THE UNITED STATES** / NATIONAL
BANK
 - PURPOSE - to issue paper money and handle tax
receipts
-MAIN Problem with B.O.U.S:
 - The Constitution said NOTHING about the creation of
such a bank & unhealthy alliance between fed.
Government and rich
 What cabinet member opposes this?
DEFENDING THE B.O.U.S. =
(1) Assumption
(2) “Necessary and Proper Clause” or Elastic Clause

Protective Tariff vs. Excise Tax
“PROTECTIVE TARIFF”, an import tax on goods produced
in other countries – supported American made goods
GREED sets in….need more money!
OVERALL GOAL OF A PROTECTIVE TARIFF???
_______________________________________________
*Hamilton (sect. of treasury) passes an “EXCISE TAX” – a
tax on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution
WITHIN the United States!
THE SOUTHERN FARMER would HATE / consistently
oppose an “excise tax”

Ex. Tax on corn = Whiskey
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
1794 – Farmers
refused to pay the excise tax on corn

Farmer’s Problems
(1) felt they were singled out to help the government pay off debt & threatened to secede!
(2) *Taxation without Representation” - from Tennessee and Kentucky (not states yet so
no one to represent them in Congress)
Whiskey rebellion: Occurs in Pennsylvania (1794)
Dilemma: Can the government force people to pay a tax?!?
Washington’s response to Whiskey Rebellion: 13,000 troops sent to Pennsylvania…the
revolt was crushed *Federal government wins!
Anti-Federalist (Jeffersonian / States) reaction: Washington acted too harshly – using a
sledgehammer to kill a gnat!
**The VERY FIRST time the executive branch stepped up to enforce laws!!!!!**

* Be able to compare Shays Rebellion to the Whiskey Rebellion
*T.Q. - Why would the DemocraticRepublicans oppose the creation of the
Bank of the United States??
A.
B.
C.
D.
Only states should have banks
The Constitution did not say anything about
or provide for a national bank
The bank should not have the right to
handle tax receipts
Money should only be printed by states
Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation
American Revolution triggers
the French Revolution:

French Revolution 1780s -1790s
French Civil War
(1)
French citizens against French Government
(2)
French vs. other European countries
Turning Point: “Reign of Terror” and the Guillotine wiped out the enemies of the
revolution!
U.S.(liberal / Jeffersonians) response: Democracy defeating a monarchy !
U.S. (conservative / Hamiltonians) response: hates the mobocracy in France
WHAT SHOULD AMERICA DO??????????????????????????????
Problem: England fights the French (WHO DO AMERICANS SUPPORT NOW?)
Jefferson Liberals: Support for France b/c FRANCO-AMERICAN TREATY / they
helped us in Americans revolution …we should help them now!
Hamilton Conservatives: Support for England b/c of heritage and Bank of the United
States blueprint
WASHINGTON’S CHOICE
Neutrality Proclamation (1793)
Washington’s reaction to French Revolution (1793) / choosing liberal or conservative
*******Proclamation of NEUTRALITY ***********
- a statement that the U.S. would support NEITHER side in the conflict (stay out of
war)
ENGLISH reaction = THANKS!!
French reaction = HIGHLY UPSET (FRANCO-AMERICAN TREATY)
Edmond Genet’s Visit to America
-
-
Visited Charleston, S.C. in claims that Washington’s decision didn’t reflect the
PEOPLE’S choice!
Genet’s Vision: the people would rebel against Washington’s Neutrality!
Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation

French Revolution (French vs. French
government)
U.S. = Support?
Washington’s reaction to French Revolution (1793)
*******Proclamation of NEUTRALITY ***********
- a statement that the U.S. would support
NEITHER side in the conflict (stay out of war)
French reaction = MAD!!!!
*Pinckney’s Treaty* (1795)
U.S. treaty with SPAIN
Spain controlled Miss. River / Louisiana Territory,
Texas to California and Florida (at the time)
 Purpose:
(1)(MOST IMPORTANT) to gain shipping rights along
the Mississippi River (Result: American
development of Miss. Area)
(2) to make land claims EAST of the Appalachian
Mountains (except Florida)
(3) Access to the Port of New Orleans

Jay’s Treaty
Supreme Court CHIEF
Justice in 1796
***PURPOSE***
- negotiate a treaty with Britain
(to stay away from war = neutrality)
- Outcome:
(1) The U.S. would pay off all British debts! (for pre-revolutionary issues)
(2) British were allowed to continue trade on the American side of the
Canadian/American border. (S)
(3) British will pay for damages inflicted by impressments (did not promise it
would stop!) (N)
(4) War was avoided (ONLY good thing on the American side)
Results:
(1) Dem-Republicans (western settlers) HATED John Jay’s treaty!
(2) Stronger ties between Federalist and British (UPSET SOUTHERNERS)

Jay’s Effigy!
Southern View:
Western Settler View:
Northern View:
WASHINGTON’S
FAREWELL ADDRESS
Washington DOES NOT run for a third term but has a
 “FAREWELL ADDRESS” – (1796)Topics:
(1) PROMOTE NEUTRALITY =
“Steer clear of permanent alliances”
*Permanent Alliances are BAD!!!!!! (emergencies are ok!)
(2) AVOID TWO PARTY SYSTEM (divisive)
(What causes the 2 Party system??)

Possible short answer Questions for
Goal 1 Test










What was the significance of the Judiciary Act of 1789?
What did the differences between Hamilton (Fed) and Jefferson
(Dem. Rep) provide America? (T CHART)
What was the overall purpose of the Bank of the United States?
What did Washington support AND advise against in his Farewell
Address?
What is the difference between a protective tariff and an excise
tax? Purpose of the Protective Tariff?
What is the legacy of the Whiskey Rebellion?
Why did people begin to not support the French in their
revolution?
What was the purpose of Edmund Genet’s visit to America?
What did Pinckney’s Treaty provide America? Provide Britain?
Why were Dem-Republicans upset with Jay’s Treaty?
Hamiltonian V. Jeffersonian Essay
Directions:
(1) Place yourself as either Hamilton or Jefferson.
(2) Write a letter to your opposition, President Washington, excise tax collector,
local farmer, or local banker arguing your view and how your points / beliefs will
provide a more secure and developed nation.
(3) You must persuade the other cabinet member to embrace your message.
Try your best to negate or downsize the influence of the other cabinet
member’s argument by providing a true understanding of the issues at hand.
(4) Mandatory: Include 3 ideas from your cartoon handout
Government /Politics
Foreign Issues
Economy
Culture/Society
Business
Length: 1 page
Due: Before you leave class today