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Introduction: Aubrey
First Construction by France: Aubrey
Spanish American War spurs idea: Aubrey
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty overrides Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: Sheila
The Consideration of Nicaragua: Sheila
Hay-Herran Treaty: Anna
Panamanian Independence: Anna
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty: Anna
Construction of the Panama Canal: Alice
Problems: Alice
Torrijos-Carter Treaties in 1997: Stephanie
Panama Canal Today: Stephanie
Key Terms: Aubrey and Alice
Timeline: Anna
Conclusion and Significance: Anna
Movie: The Search for an Isthmus
• What is the Panama Canal?
• Ended route via the Drake
Passage and Cape Horn at the
Southern most tip of Africa
• Decreased a ship’s traveling
distance from New York to San
Francisco by 8,000 miles
• French: 1st who attempted its
construction in 1880
• Was not completed until 1914
by the United States
• Building the canal was not an
easy task…
- plagued by diseases
and landslides
What Exactly Was the Route?
Cape Horn
San Francisco
Cuba
• Spanish American War’s outcome
• Brought about by the loss of USS Maine on Feb
15,1898
• USS Oregon: “sea-going coastline battleship”
• Requirements: heavy armor, good speed, and
large coal bunkers to give freedom from the
coaling stations of the U.S. coast
• San Francisco to Cuba to aid U.S. North
Atlantic and “Flying” Squadrons
• Straits of Magellan
• Missed the war
• No formal agreement until 1878
• Fernando de Lesseps and Bunau-Varilla
• In 1882 the French began building. However, in 1890 major
difficulties arose.
• After seven years of work, the French completed only two-fifths of
the canal.
• The construction company appeared before the French courts, and
eventually was forced to declare bankruptcy.
• Four years later, a new European company resumed work, but
they too would not be able to face the difficulties of building such
a canal.
• The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 began to be
questioned
• Hay-Pauncefote Treaty is signed by Secretary of State &
British ambassador in 1900
• Two years later it was ratified by the U.S. Senate
• Terms:
– The U.S. was allowed to build and maintain a canal
in Central America, overriding the Clayton-Bulwer
Treaty
– The U.S. was to pledge the neutrality of the canal
and was able to fortify the canal, if necessary
– The canal in general was open to nations and that
the rates will be fair and equal
•
•
•
•
Maritime Canal Company chooses Nicaragua for a canal
At the same time the French were building in Panama
Both attempts failed
Philippe Banau-Varilla took the job of selling the canal to the
U.S.
• Both Nicaragua and Panama sites are being sold for $40
million
• Banau-Varilla promotes Panama:
– On the day the U.S. was making the decision on the
location he sent Nicaragua’s stamp with a volcano to
convince them otherwise.
– Volcano explosion on Martinique
• Banau-Varilla’s last ditch effort worked: a legislative bill was
passed for Panama
• Hay-Herran Treaty signed on January 22, 1903 between
Secretary of State John Hay and Tomas Herran of
Colombia without much oversight from the government
• Had it been ratified, The U.S would have paid an initial
$10 million and an annual $250,000
• U.S. ratified the treaty on March 14, but Colombian
senate never ratified it
• Colombia never ratified because they didn’t believe $10
million was enough and their national sovereignty
Tomas Herran
• After Hay-Herran Treaty was declined, both Panamanians and U.S.
were angry
• Panamanians believed the canal would greatly help their economy
• Roosevelt didn’t believe Colombia should be able to bar U.S. from
expansion
• Bunau-Varilla organized a local revolt in Panama and wrote the
constitution for the new nation as well
• Roosevelt sent the battleship Nashville to “hover” around to show
the U.S.’s support for Panama’s independence
• Panama declared its independence from Colombia on November 3,
Philippe Bunau-Varilla
1903
• Roosevelt made a $10 million offer for the 10-mile-wide canal zone
which Panama gladly accepted
• Resulted in Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
• Roosevelt appointed a chief engineer John Wallace to
“make the dirt fly”
• Culebra mountain difficulties, mounds of mud
• Project bogged down in paperwork and government red
tape
• Stevens improved lives of the workers
– Alters construction plans to build lock canal
• Lock system process
• Stevens quits in 1907, Goethals third and last chief
engineer
• Experience with locks: the Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and
Miraflores
• Guillard Cut and man-made lake
• In 1913, 43,000 people from 97 countries
worked on canal
• Finished on April 15, 1914
• Ancon, first commercial ship
• Canal is over 47 miles long, 15 hour trip
• Stevens worked with Dr. Gorgas to battle disease
• Combated yellow fever and malaria
• Panama’s increase in nationalism caused plans to renegotiate canal rights
• What are the Torrijos-Carter Treaties?
– signed 1977
– Panama gain full control as of 1999
• U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Panama's de facto leader
Omar Torrijos
• First Treaty: Neutrality Treaty
• Second Treaty: The Panama Canal Treaty
• Completed in August of 1914 under budget
by $23 million
• What was the Cristobal?
• In 1921 the U.S. paid Columbia $25 million
• Initial traffic and tolls
• Used today by all ships except oil supertankers
• Were fears about Panamanian upkeep
• 1934 max capacity estimate: 80 mill tons a year
• 2005: 278.8 mill tons
• Actions will need to be taken to increase capacity
soon
Hay-Bunau-Varilla
Treaty:
treaty between
John Hay
Drake
Passage: A
straitThe
between
Cape Horn
andand
Frenchman
that provided the United States
the South Bunau-Varilla
Shetland Islands.
guarantee the independence of Panama, while receiving in
perpetuity
a ten-mile-wide
strip
for $10atmillion
Cape Horn:
A headland
onofa territory
small island
the
for
the construction
of aof
canal.
Southern
extremity
South America and
belongs
Chile.strip of land connecting two larger masses
Isthmus: Ato
narrow
of land.
Panama Canal: A canal that crosses the isthmus
Hay-Pauncefote
Treaty: Treaty
modified
thePacific
Claytonof Panama connecting
thethat
Atlantic
and
Bulwer Treaty of 1850. It permitted the construction and
Oceans. Built by the United States between 1904
maintenance of a canal under the United States.
and 1914.
Colonel George Goethals: The third and final engineer of the canal project who finished the canal.
Strait of Magellan: A channel separating South America from Tierra del
Dr.
Gorgas:
doctor
who battled
yellow
and malaria
and eventually
wiped out the
Fuego
andThe
other
islands
south of
the fever
continent
and connecting
the
significant
of those
Panama.
southernthreat
Atlantic
and diseases
Pacific inoceans.
Torrijos-Carter Treaties: Two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C.,
Fernando de Lesseps: A French diplomat and maker of the Suez Canal in
on September 7, 1977, annulling the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. They guaranteed that
North
whocontrol
beganofFrench
construction
theending
Panama
Canal. of the canal that the
Panama Africa
would gain
the Panama
Canal afterof
1999,
the control
U.S. had exercised since 1903.
Hay-Herran Treaty: A document signed on January 22, 1903 between
Neutrality
The firstHerran
part of the
Treaty
in which
the U.S.
retained
John HayTreaty:
and Tomas
of Torrijos-Carter
Colombia. The
treaty
would
have
giventhe
permanent
right
to defend
the10-mile-wide
canal from any Canal
threat that
might
interfere with its continued neutral
the U.S. the
rights
to the
Zone
in Panama.
service to ships of all nations.
Big Stick Diplomacy: Roosevelt’s catchphrase in reference to any foreign
The Panama Canal Treaty: The second part of the Torrijos-Carter Treaty that provided that as of 12
policy
made
negotiations
withassume
diplomatic
grace,
backed
by theand become
p.m. on that
January
1, 2000,
Panama would
full control
of canal
operations
possible
threat of military
force.
primarily responsible
for its defense.
French
Construction
1882
Start:
Torrijos Carter
Treaties
Signed 1977, in affect 1999
Spanish
American
War brings
idea
1898
Hay-Pauncefote
Treaty 1901
Consideration
Of Nicaragua
Construction ends
1914
Construction begins
May 4th, 1904
Hay-Herran
Treaty 1903
Hay-Bunau-Varilla
Treaty 1904
Panama’s
Independence
Nov 3, 1903
• The Panama Canal was, is, and shall remain the
engineering masterpiece of the 20th century.
• 87 years of continuous service
• Obstacles stood in the way, but the outcome was well
worth it
• Significance in US History: “A new pathway for the
ever-expanding, ever-changing human race.”
"A History of the Panama Canal." 2001. ACP. 11 May 2007
<http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html>.
Armagnac, Alden P. "Enlarging the Panama Canal." CZBrats. 27 June 2001. 11 May 2007
<http://www.czbrats.com/Articles/3rdlocks/3rdlocks.htm>.
Armstrong, Stephen. 5 Steps to a 5 AP US History. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-HIll, 2007. 185-188.
Barrett, and Lafeber. "The Panama Canal." 1978. 2007
<http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm>.
Boyer, Paul S. The Enduring Vision. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 680.
Buschini. "The Panama Canal." Small Planet Communications. 2000. 15 May 2007 <"Theodore
Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs." U-S-History. 12 May 2007 >.
"Global History and Geography." 1999. Oswego City School District. 28 Apr. 2007
<http://regentsprep.org/regents/global/vocab/topic_alpha.cfm?topic=p>.
"Hay-Pauncefote Treaties." Answers.Com. 12 May 2007 <http://www.answers.com/topic/haypauncefote-treaty>.
…and now for our Feature Presentation
The Search for
the Isthmus