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Chapter Nine: An Agrarian
European Forces In North
• In 1784 Shelikhov set up a Russian post on
Kodiak Island; he establishes the first permanent
Russian settlement in the Gulf of Alaska
• After the reestablishment of Sitka in 1804 (Tlingit
Revolt, 1802) Russian settlements were established
all along the Pacific coastline up until the San
Francisco Bay.
•The Spanish attempt to seal off the seaborne fur
trade from rival nations, but failed; missions were
built to protect Spanish holdings.
•New Orleans begins to become a thriving
international port.
•Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain gave the
Americans and French free navigation of the
Mississippi River and the right to deposit goods at
New Orleans.
Thomas Pinckney
National Economy
The majority of Americans lived in
communities that were rural and
In the North people were generally selfsufficient, while in the South people
were involved in marketing.
Demand for tobacco and rice did not
rise, however, and demand for cotton
was rapidly growing.
Shipping had been hurt by the end of
mercantilist ties with Great Britain.
The outbreak of war in Europe helped
to vastly expanded trade; the result
was the growth of American coastal
The economic boom led to the
Americans entering the markets in
China and the fur trade, a growth in the
shipbuilding industry and the rise of
businesses that served the international
market (ex. Banks and Insurance
The overall result of this economic
growth was the development of a
strong, diversified economy.
Robert Morris, proprietor of
the Empress of China
Thomas Jefferson’s First Term
Jefferson’s inauguration was a
peaceful transition from one political
party to another (Federalists to
Democratic Republicans).
This demonstrated that a strongly led
party system would not necessarily
lead to dictatorship or revolt.
Jefferson envisioned a nation of small
family farms, with roughly equal
ownership of the land.
Jefferson promised to cut internal
taxes, reduce the size of the navy,
army and government staff and to
eliminate national debt. During his
Presidency, he managed to uphold all
of these promises.
The unfinished state of the nation’s
capital reflected the emphasis on local
Marbury v. Madison -1803-established
judicial review and an independent
judicial branch.
Marbury v Madison:
Marbury is on the left, and
Madison is on the right.
Jefferson’s First Term (cont.)
American commerce and security were
threatened by the conflicts between the French
and English.
Napoleon acquired the Louisiana territory through
a secret treaty with Spain; his acquisition of this
area threatened American access to the
Mississippi River.
Jefferson tried to buy New Orleans, but ended up
accepting an offer on the entire territory for $15
million dollars, thereby doubling the size of the
The French customs, however, conflicted with the
English-derived American customs, so in order to
incorporate this new areas, aspects of French
institutions were left in place in Louisiana.
This purchase also put the United States in
conflict with Spain because of border disputes
near the Mexican province of Texas.
During this time, revolt broke out, and in 1812 a
small force managed to fight and free Texas from
Spanish rule. A year later, however, the area was
retaken by the Mexican republicans.
Louisiana Purchase
American Neutrality
• Jefferson faced major problems
protecting America’s neutrality
during his second term; British
ships were seizing American
vessels and forced sailors into
joining the Royal Navy Impressment
• In order to combat this, Congress
imposed a boycott. This,
however, ended in failure and so
the Embargo Act (1807) was
passed. The Embargo Act failed
to change British policy, caused a
depression and led to a sharp rise
in smuggling.
• During James Madison’s
presidency, the Embargo Act was
repealed, and replaced with
Macon’s Bill #2 (1809)
Political Cartoon
Indian Policy
Western tribes resisted the western
movement of the American settlers.
Jefferson supported both the relocation of
Indians across the Mississippi and attempts
at converting the natives to white
civilization. Neither one of these ideas
received much support from the natives,
The Shawnee were the leaders of Indian
resistance in the Ohio Valley; Tecumseh
and his followers attempted to escape
contact with all whites.
His brother, Tenskwatawa (The Prophet),
preached the rejection of white culture and
created a pan-Indian religious movement.
Tecumseh created a pan-Indian
confederacy. Though it was initially
defensive, it soon supported military/armed
Tenskwatawa’s followers were defeated at
Tippecanoe, and in response, Tecumseh
formally allied with the English.
The War of 1812
War Hawks, including Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun,
supported war as a means of expansion; however, when
Madison declared war, it received no Federalist support.
There was a deep division among the American people; the
West and South were pro-war, but New England and the
Middle States were anti-war.
Jefferson’s economizing had made the American army and
navy both small and weak.
Efforts were made to capture Canada in hope of expansion,
but failed due to New England’s opposition, the strength of
the British forces and the resistance of the Canadians.
The Battle of the Thames, at which Tecumseh was killed,
ended in American victory.
Andrew Jackson, along with his Indian allies, fought and
defeated the Creek Indians. He then proceeded to invade
A strong blockade was formed by the British, and Washington
was burned, forcing both the President and Congress to flee.
Continued opposition from New England led to The Hartford
Convention resulted because of New England’s continuous
opposition; Federalists demanded the correction of perceived
grievances, but nothing truly came of the Convention.
The war was ended with the Treaty of Ghent, and although
the grievances were not addressed, the British agreed to
evacuate their western forts.
The war ended feelings of American colonial dependency that
had lingered and made the possibility of a united Indian
resistance to white expansion nonexistent.
The Frontier
• The overpopulated
farmland in the east caused
Americans to seek the
cheap land in the west,
bringing their cultures and
values with them.
-The Second Great
Awakening grew in
influence during the early
1800’s. Led by women - it
revolved around the camp
meeting place,
strengthened east-west
relationships and helped
Westerners to create new
The Second Great
The Era of Good Feelings and John
Quincy Adams
James Monroe was President during the postwar “era of good feelings” and brought
former Federalists into his cabinet.
Monroe embraced most of Henry Clay’s
American System, which updated many of
Alexander Hamilton’s ideas.
The Monroe administration established the
Second Bank of the United States, and passed
a protective tariff in 1816.
The foundation for the continuation of
expansion was founded by the Secretary of
State John Quincy Adams.
Two treaties with Britain (the Rush-Bagot
Treaty of 1817 and the Convention of 1818)
fixed the American-Canadian border problem
and provided for a decade of joint occupation
in Oregon.
The Adams-Onis Treaty brought the US
Florida and made the Spanish relinquish their
claims on Louisiana.
Adams designed the Monroe Doctrine, and
thus provided the response of the US to
emerging nations that resided in the Western
John Quincy Adams
The Panic of 1819
The land boom was financed by both
speculative buying and easy credit,
however, when people were unable to
pay for their land, the Second Bank of
the US began foreclosing on loans.
This started the Panic of 1819 and
triggered a six year depression, hurting
urban workers who suffered from the
decline in trade as well as
manufacturing failures.
Congress passed Stay Laws and a
relief act in 1821, but many small banks
failed and took their creditors down with
This in turn led to manufacturers
pressing for higher protective tariffs,
which greatly angered Southerners.
Despite Southern protests, higher tariffs
were achieved in 1824.
The Second Bank of
the United States
The Missouri Compromise 1820
• The application of Missouri into the
Union as a slave state created a
crisis; Northerners opposed it
because it would tip the power of
the Senate in favor of the slave
• Southerners wished to expand
slavery into the frontier, and were
concerned that Congress would
even begin to question the matter.
• Henry Clay forged a compromise
that admitted Maine as a free state
and slavery was barred north of 36
degrees 30 minutes north latitude–
the southern boundary of Missouri.