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Chapter Nine: An Agrarian Republic European Forces In North America • In 1784 Shelikhov set up a Russian post on Kodiak Island; he establishes the first permanent Russian settlement in the Gulf of Alaska • After the reestablishment of Sitka in 1804 (Tlingit Revolt, 1802) Russian settlements were established all along the Pacific coastline up until the San Francisco Bay. •The Spanish attempt to seal off the seaborne fur trade from rival nations, but failed; missions were built to protect Spanish holdings. •New Orleans begins to become a thriving international port. •Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain gave the Americans and French free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right to deposit goods at New Orleans. Thomas Pinckney National Economy • • • • • • • The majority of Americans lived in communities that were rural and agricultural. In the North people were generally selfsufficient, while in the South people were involved in marketing. Demand for tobacco and rice did not rise, however, and demand for cotton was rapidly growing. Shipping had been hurt by the end of mercantilist ties with Great Britain. The outbreak of war in Europe helped to vastly expanded trade; the result was the growth of American coastal cities. The economic boom led to the Americans entering the markets in China and the fur trade, a growth in the shipbuilding industry and the rise of businesses that served the international market (ex. Banks and Insurance Companies) The overall result of this economic growth was the development of a strong, diversified economy. Robert Morris, proprietor of the Empress of China Thomas Jefferson’s First Term • • • • • • Jefferson’s inauguration was a peaceful transition from one political party to another (Federalists to Democratic Republicans). This demonstrated that a strongly led party system would not necessarily lead to dictatorship or revolt. Jefferson envisioned a nation of small family farms, with roughly equal ownership of the land. Jefferson promised to cut internal taxes, reduce the size of the navy, army and government staff and to eliminate national debt. During his Presidency, he managed to uphold all of these promises. The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities. Marbury v. Madison -1803-established judicial review and an independent judicial branch. Marbury v Madison: Marbury is on the left, and Madison is on the right. Jefferson’s First Term (cont.) • • • • • • American commerce and security were threatened by the conflicts between the French and English. Napoleon acquired the Louisiana territory through a secret treaty with Spain; his acquisition of this area threatened American access to the Mississippi River. Jefferson tried to buy New Orleans, but ended up accepting an offer on the entire territory for $15 million dollars, thereby doubling the size of the US. The French customs, however, conflicted with the English-derived American customs, so in order to incorporate this new areas, aspects of French institutions were left in place in Louisiana. This purchase also put the United States in conflict with Spain because of border disputes near the Mexican province of Texas. During this time, revolt broke out, and in 1812 a small force managed to fight and free Texas from Spanish rule. A year later, however, the area was retaken by the Mexican republicans. Louisiana Purchase American Neutrality • Jefferson faced major problems protecting America’s neutrality during his second term; British ships were seizing American vessels and forced sailors into joining the Royal Navy Impressment • In order to combat this, Congress imposed a boycott. This, however, ended in failure and so the Embargo Act (1807) was passed. The Embargo Act failed to change British policy, caused a depression and led to a sharp rise in smuggling. • During James Madison’s presidency, the Embargo Act was repealed, and replaced with Macon’s Bill #2 (1809) Political Cartoon Indian Policy • • • • • • Western tribes resisted the western movement of the American settlers. Jefferson supported both the relocation of Indians across the Mississippi and attempts at converting the natives to white civilization. Neither one of these ideas received much support from the natives, however. The Shawnee were the leaders of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley; Tecumseh and his followers attempted to escape contact with all whites. His brother, Tenskwatawa (The Prophet), preached the rejection of white culture and created a pan-Indian religious movement. Tecumseh created a pan-Indian confederacy. Though it was initially defensive, it soon supported military/armed resistance. Tenskwatawa’s followers were defeated at Tippecanoe, and in response, Tecumseh formally allied with the English. Tecumseh The War of 1812 • • • • • • • • • • War Hawks, including Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, supported war as a means of expansion; however, when Madison declared war, it received no Federalist support. There was a deep division among the American people; the West and South were pro-war, but New England and the Middle States were anti-war. Jefferson’s economizing had made the American army and navy both small and weak. Efforts were made to capture Canada in hope of expansion, but failed due to New England’s opposition, the strength of the British forces and the resistance of the Canadians. The Battle of the Thames, at which Tecumseh was killed, ended in American victory. Andrew Jackson, along with his Indian allies, fought and defeated the Creek Indians. He then proceeded to invade Florida. A strong blockade was formed by the British, and Washington was burned, forcing both the President and Congress to flee. Continued opposition from New England led to The Hartford Convention resulted because of New England’s continuous opposition; Federalists demanded the correction of perceived grievances, but nothing truly came of the Convention. The war was ended with the Treaty of Ghent, and although the grievances were not addressed, the British agreed to evacuate their western forts. The war ended feelings of American colonial dependency that had lingered and made the possibility of a united Indian resistance to white expansion nonexistent. The Frontier • The overpopulated farmland in the east caused Americans to seek the cheap land in the west, bringing their cultures and values with them. -The Second Great Awakening grew in influence during the early 1800’s. Led by women - it revolved around the camp meeting place, strengthened east-west relationships and helped Westerners to create new institutions. The Second Great Awakening The Era of Good Feelings and John Quincy Adams • • • • • • • James Monroe was President during the postwar “era of good feelings” and brought former Federalists into his cabinet. Monroe embraced most of Henry Clay’s American System, which updated many of Alexander Hamilton’s ideas. The Monroe administration established the Second Bank of the United States, and passed a protective tariff in 1816. The foundation for the continuation of expansion was founded by the Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Two treaties with Britain (the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 and the Convention of 1818) fixed the American-Canadian border problem and provided for a decade of joint occupation in Oregon. The Adams-Onis Treaty brought the US Florida and made the Spanish relinquish their claims on Louisiana. Adams designed the Monroe Doctrine, and thus provided the response of the US to emerging nations that resided in the Western Hemisphere. John Quincy Adams The Panic of 1819 • • • • • The land boom was financed by both speculative buying and easy credit, however, when people were unable to pay for their land, the Second Bank of the US began foreclosing on loans. This started the Panic of 1819 and triggered a six year depression, hurting urban workers who suffered from the decline in trade as well as manufacturing failures. Congress passed Stay Laws and a relief act in 1821, but many small banks failed and took their creditors down with them. This in turn led to manufacturers pressing for higher protective tariffs, which greatly angered Southerners. Despite Southern protests, higher tariffs were achieved in 1824. The Second Bank of the United States The Missouri Compromise 1820 • The application of Missouri into the Union as a slave state created a crisis; Northerners opposed it because it would tip the power of the Senate in favor of the slave states. • Southerners wished to expand slavery into the frontier, and were concerned that Congress would even begin to question the matter. • Henry Clay forged a compromise that admitted Maine as a free state and slavery was barred north of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude– the southern boundary of Missouri.