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The U.S. Seeks a World Role
Chapter 20 Section 5
Theodore Roosevelt
Russo-Japanese War
Desire by both Japan and Russia to
develop 'spheres of influence' in the Far
East, mainly at the expense of China.
Manchuria and Korea
Japan was allied with Great Britain
Japan knew that they could not win a
long war fought over a vast expanse, but
they could win a short localized war.
Through the mediation of U.S. President
Theodore Roosevelt peace was made in
September at Portsmouth, N.H.1905
The Portsmouth Treaty ended the
Russo-Japanese War. Russia had
suffered severe defeats and Japan was
in financial difficulties.
The disastrous outcome of the war for
Russia was one of the immediate
causes of the Russian Revolution of
1905. Japan gained the position of a
world power, becoming the first nonEuropean and non-American imperialist
modern state.
Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
Root-Takahira Agreement- 1905
A pledge to maintain the status quo in the Far East.
Japan would be allowed to annex Korea, and pursue
interests in Manchuria
Recognition of China's independence and territorial
integrity, and support for continuation of the Open Door
policy
An agreement to mutual consultation in the event of
future Far Eastern crises. Japan will not meddle with
U.S. colonies in the Pacific.
T. Roosevelt sends the “Great White Fleet” of 16
battleships on a trip around the world in 1907. Can’t let
the Japanese think we are weak.
Panama Canal
The American expenditures from 1904 to
1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than
the cost of anything built by the United
States Government up to that time.
Together the French and American
expenditures totaled $639,000,000. It took
34 years from the initial effort in 1880 to
actually open the Canal in 1914. It is
estimated that over 80,000 persons took
part in the construction and that over
30,000 lives were lost in both French and
American efforts.
1878- French company tries building a canal across Panama- Paid Columbia for rights.
French Failed and gave up
1898- U.S. government buys up the French rights and equipmentto the canal for $40
million.
The United States and the new state of Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, by
which the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and secured a
perpetual lease on a 10-mile strip for the canal. Panama was to be compensated by an
initial payment of $10 million and an annuity of $250,000, beginning in 1913.
The U.S. helped Panama gain its independence from Columbia.
Canal Construction
Length- 51 miles
11.5 to Gatun Locks
40 miles across Lake Gatun to the
Pedro Miguel locks
The Pedro Miguel locks lower ships
9.4 metres, then on to the
Miraflores Locks which lower ships
16 metres to sea level at the canals
Pacific terminus in the bay of
Panama.
The Panama Canal was
constructed in two stages. The first
between 1881 and 1888, being the
work carried out by the French
company headed by de Lessop and
secondly the work by the
Americans which eventually
completed the canals construction
between 1904 and 1914.
Roosevelt and the Canal
Roosevelt ordered army engineers to start digging.
Thousands of workers sweated in the malarial heat.
They tore up jungles and cut down mountains. Insects
thrived in muddy, stagnant pools. "Mosquitoes get so
thick you get a mouthful with every breath," a worker
complained. The mosquitoes also carried yellow fever,
and many fell victim to the deadly disease before Dr.
William Gorgas found a way to stop it.
Some Americans did not approve of Roosevelt's
behavior. "There was much accusation about my
having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy
shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and
then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to
debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does
too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they
wish, provided that we can go on with the canal.”
Roosevelt liked to repeat an old African saying: "Speak softly,
and carry a big stick. You will go far." In Panama, Teddy
proved to the world that he was willing to use his big navy as a
stick to further American interests
Roosevelt Corollary
“Big Stick” Policy of TR.
Addition to Monroe Doctrine
United States would intervene as a last resort to
keep other powers out and ensure financial
stability
United States increasingly used military force to
restore internal stability to nations in the
region
United States might "exercise international police
power
It did serve as justification for U.S. intervention
in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican
Republic
Dollar Diplomacy- Taft
1909-1913
Goal of diplomacy was to create stability and
order abroad that would best promote
American commercial interests
Extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean
and Central America, especially in measures
undertaken to safeguard American financial
interests in the region
U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin
America and East Asia through use of its
economic power.
Wilson’s Moral Foreign Policy
A policy that made the US the conscience of the world. He hoped to spread
democracy, condemn colonialism, and promote peace. Every international
conflict would be solved by a third party and the countries would remain peaceful
while the conflict was resolved.
Japan? Wilson protested the Japanese demands on China following the beginning
of World War I.? Japan eased off, pretty much making China a protectorate, but
remained bitter towards the US.
Latin America? Wilson hoped to promote democracy and ensure the security of
the Panama Canal in Latin America. Wilson answered upheavals in Haiti and the
Dominican Republic with troops. Wilson plans to aid Latin American nations
and prepare them for democracy inspired hatred rather than friendship.
Mexican Civil War? In 1911 General Huerta seized power in Mexico and favored
the wealthy landowners. Venustiano Carranza led the resistance to the Mexican
regime. When Huerta declared himself military dictator of the regime, then
Wilson banned arms shipment to Mexico and refused to recognize the defacto
government. Carranza defeated Huerta.
Bandit Fransisco Pancho Villa revolted against Carranza and attacked US border
towns. The US sent General John Pershing down to find Pancho, but the 10,000
men trekking 300 miles into Mexico caused unrest in the Mexican Government.
Poncho Villa
Francisco "Pancho" Villa (1877-1923) is famed in
Mexico as a revolutionary and in the United
States as a violent bandit.
The 1911 overthrow set off a struggle for power
that Villa, who had American support, was
winning until 1915, Villa's enemy Venustiano
Carranza (1859-1920). United States recognized
Carranza.
Villa responds by attacking Americans' in
Mexico. Villa's men raided across the border into
Columbus, New Mexico (March 9, 1916), killing
about a dozen Americans before being driven off.
Wilson orders General John J. Pershing to lead
an expedition into Mexico in pursuit of Villa. This
American invasion, which was labeled a failure
after 11 months. Villa, whose raids continued,
could not be captured.
The American invasion so angered his
countrymen that Villa was regarded as a national
hero.