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The U.S. Seeks a World Role Chapter 20 Section 5 Theodore Roosevelt Russo-Japanese War Desire by both Japan and Russia to develop 'spheres of influence' in the Far East, mainly at the expense of China. Manchuria and Korea Japan was allied with Great Britain Japan knew that they could not win a long war fought over a vast expanse, but they could win a short localized war. Through the mediation of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt peace was made in September at Portsmouth, N.H.1905 The Portsmouth Treaty ended the Russo-Japanese War. Russia had suffered severe defeats and Japan was in financial difficulties. The disastrous outcome of the war for Russia was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Japan gained the position of a world power, becoming the first nonEuropean and non-American imperialist modern state. Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize. Root-Takahira Agreement- 1905 A pledge to maintain the status quo in the Far East. Japan would be allowed to annex Korea, and pursue interests in Manchuria Recognition of China's independence and territorial integrity, and support for continuation of the Open Door policy An agreement to mutual consultation in the event of future Far Eastern crises. Japan will not meddle with U.S. colonies in the Pacific. T. Roosevelt sends the “Great White Fleet” of 16 battleships on a trip around the world in 1907. Can’t let the Japanese think we are weak. Panama Canal The American expenditures from 1904 to 1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than the cost of anything built by the United States Government up to that time. Together the French and American expenditures totaled $639,000,000. It took 34 years from the initial effort in 1880 to actually open the Canal in 1914. It is estimated that over 80,000 persons took part in the construction and that over 30,000 lives were lost in both French and American efforts. 1878- French company tries building a canal across Panama- Paid Columbia for rights. French Failed and gave up 1898- U.S. government buys up the French rights and equipmentto the canal for $40 million. The United States and the new state of Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, by which the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and secured a perpetual lease on a 10-mile strip for the canal. Panama was to be compensated by an initial payment of $10 million and an annuity of $250,000, beginning in 1913. The U.S. helped Panama gain its independence from Columbia. Canal Construction Length- 51 miles 11.5 to Gatun Locks 40 miles across Lake Gatun to the Pedro Miguel locks The Pedro Miguel locks lower ships 9.4 metres, then on to the Miraflores Locks which lower ships 16 metres to sea level at the canals Pacific terminus in the bay of Panama. The Panama Canal was constructed in two stages. The first between 1881 and 1888, being the work carried out by the French company headed by de Lessop and secondly the work by the Americans which eventually completed the canals construction between 1904 and 1914. Roosevelt and the Canal Roosevelt ordered army engineers to start digging. Thousands of workers sweated in the malarial heat. They tore up jungles and cut down mountains. Insects thrived in muddy, stagnant pools. "Mosquitoes get so thick you get a mouthful with every breath," a worker complained. The mosquitoes also carried yellow fever, and many fell victim to the deadly disease before Dr. William Gorgas found a way to stop it. Some Americans did not approve of Roosevelt's behavior. "There was much accusation about my having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they wish, provided that we can go on with the canal.” Roosevelt liked to repeat an old African saying: "Speak softly, and carry a big stick. You will go far." In Panama, Teddy proved to the world that he was willing to use his big navy as a stick to further American interests Roosevelt Corollary “Big Stick” Policy of TR. Addition to Monroe Doctrine United States would intervene as a last resort to keep other powers out and ensure financial stability United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region United States might "exercise international police power It did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic Dollar Diplomacy- Taft 1909-1913 Goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests Extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. Wilson’s Moral Foreign Policy A policy that made the US the conscience of the world. He hoped to spread democracy, condemn colonialism, and promote peace. Every international conflict would be solved by a third party and the countries would remain peaceful while the conflict was resolved. Japan? Wilson protested the Japanese demands on China following the beginning of World War I.? Japan eased off, pretty much making China a protectorate, but remained bitter towards the US. Latin America? Wilson hoped to promote democracy and ensure the security of the Panama Canal in Latin America. Wilson answered upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic with troops. Wilson plans to aid Latin American nations and prepare them for democracy inspired hatred rather than friendship. Mexican Civil War? In 1911 General Huerta seized power in Mexico and favored the wealthy landowners. Venustiano Carranza led the resistance to the Mexican regime. When Huerta declared himself military dictator of the regime, then Wilson banned arms shipment to Mexico and refused to recognize the defacto government. Carranza defeated Huerta. Bandit Fransisco Pancho Villa revolted against Carranza and attacked US border towns. The US sent General John Pershing down to find Pancho, but the 10,000 men trekking 300 miles into Mexico caused unrest in the Mexican Government. Poncho Villa Francisco "Pancho" Villa (1877-1923) is famed in Mexico as a revolutionary and in the United States as a violent bandit. The 1911 overthrow set off a struggle for power that Villa, who had American support, was winning until 1915, Villa's enemy Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920). United States recognized Carranza. Villa responds by attacking Americans' in Mexico. Villa's men raided across the border into Columbus, New Mexico (March 9, 1916), killing about a dozen Americans before being driven off. Wilson orders General John J. Pershing to lead an expedition into Mexico in pursuit of Villa. This American invasion, which was labeled a failure after 11 months. Villa, whose raids continued, could not be captured. The American invasion so angered his countrymen that Villa was regarded as a national hero.