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The United States from 1877 to 1986 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at. . . II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas . . . III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. . . . IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. . . . V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. The United States from 1877 to 1986 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development . . . VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. The United States from 1877 to 1986 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development . . . XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected . . . The United States from 1877 to 1986 Article 14 of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen points XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. . . . The United States from 1877 to 1986 Keynes’ three criticisms of the Treaty of Versailles • Transported too many raw materials from Germany to France • Stripped Germany of its overseas investments, merchant marine system, and right to levy tariffs • Burdened Germany with 33 billion dollars in reparations The United States from 1877 to 1986 the international debt mess of the 1920s . . . . France and England insist on collecting from Germany because they owe debts to the United States Germany owes huge reparations to England and France What if there was a stock market crash in the United States??? The U.S. won’t ease up on France and England’s war debts . . . . . . but encourages investors to lend money to Germany The United States from 1877 to 1986 Harding era laws for women • Sheppard Towner Act: Federal money for nurses, pre-natal care and child care. American Medical Association called it “bolshevistic.” Roman Catholic church called it government intrusion into the family • Cable Act Women don’t have to forfeit their citizenship if they marry a non-citizen. The United States from 1877 to 1986 equal rights amendments • 1920s: “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction.” • 1970s: “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” • 14th amendment, equal protection under the laws . . . The United States from 1877 to 1986 The 18th Amendment, 1919 • “After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction therefore for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.” The United States from 1877 to 1986 the harding scandals, 1921-1924 “the government that governs least, usually chooses the least to govern” • Charles Forbes of the Veteran Administration • Jess Smith and Harry Daughtry • The Teapot Dome Scandal • the fall of Albert Fall • Harding dies in San Francisco at the Palace Hotel on Market and 3rd Street • His wife raises suspicions by refusing to permit an autopsy The United States from 1877 to 1986 American terrorists: the return of the ku klux klan in the 1920s • you pay a “klecktoken” • to your “kleagle” • diversify your hate to include not just Black-Americans but Mexicans, Jews, Catholics, Japanese-Americans, French Canadians, whoever . . . • go to “klaverns” (huge communal outings) • myth: the klan only operated in the deep south • big in new jersey, detroit, pittsburgh, chicago, oklahoma, michigan, and oregon The United States from 1877 to 1986 klan strategy: intimidate through terror • lynch blacks for getting too prominent economically or politically (and say it was because they made a move on a white woman) • murder or assault whites for establishing political or economic alliances with blacks • 2,500 public floggings in one year in Oklahoma (where a klansman was governor) The United States from 1877 to 1986 the klansman’s anti-immigrant creed . . . “I believe in the limitation of foreign immigration. I am a native-born American citizen and I believe my rights in this country are superior to foreigners.” The United States from 1877 to 1986 height of the klan • 5 million members by 1923 • July 4th, 1923: 100,000 Klan members pack a park in Kokomo, Indiana • November, 1923: 75,000 Klan members show up for “Ku Klux Klan Day” in Texas • 1920: Oklahoma has a Klan governor • 1922: Texas has a Klan senator • 1924: generally estimated that half the Democratic National Convention delegates secretly belong to the Klan The United States from 1877 to 1986 decline (but not fall) of the klan • corruption and sex scandals discredit the klan • anti-immigration laws make the klan seem less necessary • disillusionment over • multiracial coalitions in prohibition makes klan the north literally drive stance against alcohol less the klan out of town popular The United States from 1877 to 1986 1921 immigration quota • Quota on all nationalities coming into the United States • 3 percent of the current total of said nationality presently in the U.S. • with a total ceiling of 357,803 immigrants a year • no more than 20 percent of the quota can come into the United States in a month The United States from 1877 to 1986 1924 National Origins Act • tougher quota on all nationalities immigrating to the United States • each nationality limited annually to 2 percent of its total presence in the United States . . . • . . . based on the 1890 census • What does this mean? • (hint: relatively few Eastern Europeans or Italians in the United States in 1890) The United States from 1877 to 1986 The NAACP fights lynching • 1919: NAACP releases 30 Years of Lynching in the South • 30 Years concludes that only 20 percent of lynchings involved accusations of impropriety with a white woman • And the vast majority of those accusations were false. • 1922: Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer proposes a federal antilynching bill The Dyer bill passes the House . . . but is blocked in the Senate. The United States from 1877 to 1986 early radio history 1901: Marconi sends first transatlantic wireless code between England and North America 1906: Fessenden transmits human voice over wireless: “radio” is invented 1906: Lee DeForest patents his “tripode”--a radio receiver 1910: Ships at sea 20 miles off shore can hear Enrico Caruso’s radio broadcast from the Metropolitan Opera in New York City 1920: KDKA in Pittsburgh begins broadcasting. The United States from 1877 to 1986 The Federal Radio Commission, 1927 • Divided the nation into 5 communications zones • Begins issuing licenses • Classifies commercial radio stations as “general interest” stations • Classifies non-profit stations as “propaganda” stations, gives them weaker licenses The United States from 1877 to 1986 In Ponzi we trust . . . A confident Charles Ponzi on his way to Federal trial A less than confident mob surrounding one of Ponzi’s branches as word leaks out that he’s a fraud. The United States from 1877 to 1986 Why the speculation boom of the 1920s? • Communication revolution via telephone and wireless telegraph • Radio delivered news of stocks quickly • Rise of disposable income among uppermiddle class • Absence of any government regulation of the trading sector The United States from 1877 to 1986 the great crash . . . 1929 Number of shares traded between 1927 and 1929 doubled ... . . . to 920 million shares by 1929. But in October 1929, stocks lost 40 percent of their value. 50 billion dollars in speculative investment lost The United States from 1877 to 1986 the international debt mess of the 1920s (revisited) France and England insist on collecting from Germany because they owe debts to the United States Germany owes huge reparations to England and France What if there was a stock market crash in the United States??? The U.S. won’t ease up on France and England’s war debts . . . . . . but encourages investors to lend money to Germany The United States from 1877 to 1986 the great crash . . . 1929 - 1931 1930: 1,352 banks failed with 850 million in deposits 1931: almost 2,300 banks failed with 1.7 billion in deposits . . . People got ten cents on the dollar of their savings, if they were lucky. The United States from 1877 to 1986 Why the Great Depression? • Low paid working and middle class consumers were unable to buy the products they made. • Farmers overproduced and overborrowed and by the late 1920s were impoverished. • Lack of regulation of banks and the stock exchange made it easy for corporations to overcapitalize and banks to over-invest. • The U.S. stock market boom and bust of 1929 stole away investment money that had kept Europe economically afloat. • U.S. passed manufacturing tariffs that hurt Europe even more (Smoot-Hawley tarrif) • Europeans stopped buying U.S. goods. • Yikes!