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REPTILES
Reptiles
A
reptile is a vertebrate that has dry, scaly
skin, lungs and terrestrial eggs with
several membranes
 They live in temperate and tropical areas
 Reptiles have been around for 300 million
years, even during the dinosaur age.
Form and function in Reptiles
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Well-changed lungs; a double loop circulatory system; a water conserving excretory system;
strong limbs; internal fertilization; and shelled, terrestrial eggs are the other adaptation that have
contributed to the success of reptiles on land
Most reptiles are Ectotherms, meaning they rely on behavior to help control body temperatures.
Ex: Turtles, snakes, and other
modern reptiles are ectotherms.
Reptiles eat a wide range of foods. Some are herbivores, most of them are carnivores, and very
little eat insects.
The lungs of a reptile are spongy, providing more gas exchange area than those amphibians.
Many reptiles have muscles around their ribs that expand the chest cavity to inhale and collapse
the cavity to force out air.
Reproduction
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All reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization.
After fertilization has occurred, the female’s reproductive system
cover the embryos with several membranes and leathery shell.
Most reptiles are oviparous. Example is the box turtle, lay their eggs
in carefully prepared nests, then abandon them. On the other hand
alligators lay their eggs in nests and guard them.
Unlike amphibians eggs, the shell and membranes of a reptilian egg
create a protected environment in which the embryo can develop
without drying out.
This type of egg is called an amniotic egg, named after to amino.
The other 3 membranes are chorian, yolk sac and allantoids.
Types of reptiles
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The four types of reptiles are lizards and snakes, crocodilians, turtle and tortoises, and the
tuatara.
Modern lizards and snakes belong to the order squamata, or scaly reptiles.
Lizards have two legs, clawed toes and moveable eyelids, on the other hand, snakes lost both
during evolution.
Crocodilians are carnivores that prey on animals, fishes and humans. Usually live in tropics or
subtropics.
Turtle and tortoises are members of the older chelonian.
Their shell is built into the skeleton, and the two parts are carapace and plastron.
The tuatara is the only living member of the order Rhynchocephalia or beaked headed reptiles.
They have a legendary “ third eye” which is in part of the brain, though its still unknown.