Download Multiple Sclerosis

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Multiple Sclerosis
Alan Chen
General Information
Other names: disseminated sclerosis or
encephalomyelitis disseminata
Inflammatory disease that affects the
insulating covers of nerve cells
Causes wide range of symptoms
• Physical, mental and sometimes psychiatric
No known cure or cause
Affects women twice as often as men
Disease presents itself between ages 20
and 50
Causes are currently not known
Could be a combination of
environmental, genetic, and
viral/bacterial components
• Probability of inheritance is higher in
relatives of affected person
• However, not considered a “hereditary”
Infectious agents
• Some microbes have been proposed to
trigger MS; none confirmed
• Human herpes, Epstein-Barr, measles,
mumps, rubella have all been proposed
to potentially contribute to MS
Pathophysiology - Lesions
• “Multiple sclerosis”  scars that
form in the nervous system
• Affects white matter in optic nerve,
brain stem, basal ganglia spinal cord
• White matter is the “communication”
part of the brain
• Loss of oligodendrocytes  thinning
or complete loss of myelin sheath
• Neurons cannot conduct signals
• Scar-like plaque builds up around
damaged neurons
Pathophysiology – Bloodbrain Barrier and
Blood-brain barrier becomes
• Mechanism is not completely
Inflammation caused by T cells
entering the BBB and attacking
• T cells may recognize myelin as
Cytokines and antibodies are released
by other immune cells during
inflammation, preventing
transmission of information
• Enhances loss of myelin
• Could even cause axon to break
down entirely
Signs and Symptoms
• Most common signs are neurological
• Usually associated with autonomic,
visual, motor, sensory problems
• Loss of sensitivity, changes in
• Uhthoff ’s phenomenon  higher
temperatures worsen symptoms
• Lhermitte’s sign  electrical
sensation running down back when
bending your neck
Diagnostic Methods
• Look for key signs
• Issues with CNS, neurological signaling problems
• Administer neurological exam to test for reduced nerve function
• Neuroimaging  MRI
• Show areas of demyelination, lesion, plaque
• Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid
• Can provide evidence of inflammation
• Test for inflammation markers, such as IgG
• Visual and sensor- evoked potentials
• Look for less activity to stimulation in optic and sensory nerves
Healthy Brain vs. Brain with
Multiple Sclerosis
There is no known cure for MS,
however there are some therapeutic
measures and drugs that one can take
to manage the attacks
• Intravenous corticosteroids can
assist in decreasing the severity
• Generally, drug therapy has been
seen to reduce the severity of
attacks, or in some cases can help to
reduce the number of attacks and
Some potential alternative treatments
are yoga, relaxation techniques,
medical marijuana, acupuncture
Physical Therapy and Occupational
Therapy have been seen to help as