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Works Cited
"Multiple Sclerosis." PubMed Health. U. S. National Library of Medicine. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.
In-text Citation:
(“Multiple Sclerosis”) OR (PubMed Health) if you have multiple sources with the same name
Multiple Sclerosis
A disorder of the central nervous system marked by weakness, numbness, a loss of muscle
coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is
thought to be an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system destroys myelin.
About Multiple Sclerosis
An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) can range from
relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating, as communication between the brain and
other parts of the body is disrupted. Many investigators believe MS to be an autoimmune disease
- one in which the body, through its immune system, launches a defensive attack against its own
In the case of MS, it is the nerve-insulating myelin that comes under assault. Such assaults may
be linked to an unknown environmental trigger, perhaps a virus.
Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40; the initial
symptom of MS is often blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in
one eye.
Most MS patients experience muscle weakness in their extremities and difficulty with
coordination and balance. These symptoms may be severe enough to impair walking or even
About Signs and Symptoms of MS
The first symptoms of MS often include:
vision problems such as blurred or double vision or optic neuritis, which causes pain in
the eye and a rapid loss of vision
weak, stiff muscles, often with painful muscle spasms
tingling or numbness in the arms, legs, trunk of the body, or face
clumsiness, particularly difficulty staying balanced when walking
bladder control problems, either inability to control the bladder or urgency
dizziness that doesn't go away
MS may also cause later symptoms such as:
mental or physical fatigue which accompanies the above symptoms during an attack
mood changes such as depression or euphoria
changes in the ability to concentrate or to multitask effectively
difficulty making decisions, planning, or prioritizing at work or in private life
About MS Treatments
There is still no cure for MS, but there are treatments for initial attacks, medications and
therapies to improve symptoms, and recently developed drugs to slow the worsening of the
disease. These new drugs have been shown to reduce the number and severity of relapses and to
delay the long term progression of MS.
Treatment for attacks
The usual treatment for an initial MS attack is to inject high doses of a steroid drug, such as
methylprednisolone, intravenously (into a vein) over the course of 3 to 5 days. It may sometimes
be followed by a tapered dose of oral steroids. Intravenous steroids quickly and potently suppress
the immune system, and reduce inflammation.Clinical trials have shown that these drugs hasten
The American Academy of Neurology recommends using plasma exchange as a secondary
treatment for severe flare-ups in relapsing forms of MS when the patient does not have a good
response to methylprednisolone.
Plasma exchange, also known as plasmapheresis, involves taking blood out of the body and
removing components in the blood's plasma that are thought to be harmful. The rest of the blood,
plus replacement plasma, is then transfused back into the body. This treatment has not been
shown to be effective for secondary progressive or chronic progressive forms of MS.
Treatments to help reduce disease activity and progression
During the past 20 years, researchers have made major breakthroughs in MS treatment due to
new knowledge about the immune system and the ability to use MRI to monitor MS in patients.
As a result, a number of medical therapies have been found to reduce relapses in persons with
relapsing-remitting MS. These drugs are called disease modulating drugs....
About the Myelin Sheath