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Chapter 51 Notes
Introduction to Behavior
Behavior: what an animal does and how
it does it
Behavior can result from both genes and
environmental factors
- not nature vs. nurture
-still some behaviors are innate
ex. young birds begging for food
Introduction to Behavior
Behavioral biology is connected to
ethology: the study of animal behavior
in natural conditions
- Fixed action pattern: behavioral
acts that is unchangeable and carried to
- sometimes triggered by a sign
Introduction to Behavior
Introduction to Behavior
Introduction to Behavior
Behavioral ecology views behavior as
an evolutionary adaptation
- natural selection will favor behavior
patterns that enhance survival
ex. foraging: mechanisms to
recognize, search for, and capture food
Learning is the modification of behavior
resulting from specific experiences.
- most innate behaviors improve with
Modification is when behaviors change
because of ongoing developmental
Habituation: type of learning that
involves a loss of responsiveness to
stimuli that convey little or no
- ex. the “cry-wolf” effect
Imprinting is a type of learning that is
limited to a specific time period in an
animal’s life and that is irreversible.
Time of learning is called the sensitive
- ex. mother-offspring bonding
Many animals can learn to associate one
stimulus to another
Associative learning: the connecting of
one stimulus to another
- ex. Pavlov’s dog
Classical conditioning: involves
learning to associate an arbitrary
stimulus with a reward or punishment
Operant conditioning: trial-and-error
learning. Animals learn to associate
one of its behaviors with a reward or
Animal Cognition
Cognition: the ability of an animal’s
nervous system to perceive, store,
process, and use information gathered
by sensory receptors.
Animal Cognition
Animals use various cognitive
mechanisms during movement
Kinesis: a simple change in activity or
turning rate in response to a stimulus
Taxis: an automatic movement toward or
away from a stimulus
Animal Cognition
Honey bees use a cognitive map made
up of several landmarks to help them
locate their hive and flowers.
Migration, or the regular movement
over long distances, is an advanced
form of cognition
Animal Cognition
Animal Cognition