Download Leisure Ability Model

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Abnormal psychology wikipedia, lookup

Mental health professional wikipedia, lookup

Psychiatric rehabilitation wikipedia, lookup

Community development wikipedia, lookup

Group development wikipedia, lookup

Psychiatric survivors movement wikipedia, lookup

Lifetrack Therapy wikipedia, lookup

Clinical mental health counseling wikipedia, lookup

School social worker wikipedia, lookup

Social work with groups wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
KNR 273:
Leisure Ability Model
Stumbo & Peterson, 2009
Overview




Significance of a professional philosophy
Leisure Ability Model
Means/end debate
Framework for evaluating models
Why is a professional
philosophy important?

It guides practice



Tells you and others why you do what you do
Regardless of philosophy or model, will use
APIE
Professional philosophies are often
represented in models
What is a model?





Representative of something
Provides an image or picture
Practice models must do more
Should direct practitioners in intervening with
clients
Should be based on theory

Austin, 1999
Leisure Ability Model
(Adopted by NTRS in 1982)






Also known as TR Service Model,
Gunn & Peterson, 1978
Originally by Peterson & Gunn, 1984
Modified by Peterson & Stumbo, 2000
Services should be based on client needs or
deficits
Focus on needs related to leisure makes TR
unique
Leisure is vital to overall quality of life and life
satisfaction
Listen to this!!!!

“This exclusive discipline focus on leisure
behavior within the umbrella of health
promotion makes the field of therapeutic
recreation different and unique from all other
health and human services. Therapeutic
recreation has much to offer clients regarding
their overall health and rehabilitation goals,
and its specific contribution lies in the area of
leisure functioning and leisure behavior.”

p. 28
Rationale for TR Services



Every human being needs, wants, and
deserves leisure
Many, if not most, individuals experience
barriers to full and satisfying leisure
Many PWD may experience more frequent,
severe or lasting barriers than people without
disabilities
Rationale for TR Services
(Cont.)


Many individuals with disabilities will need the
help of CTRS to eliminate, reduce, overcome,
or compensate for their barriers
The reduction of barriers allows the
individuals to participate in leisure
experiences of choice
Ultimate Outcome of TR
Services

“is the improved ability of the individual to engage in
a successful, appropriate, and meaningful
independent leisure lifestyle that, in turn, leads to
improved health, quality of life, and well-being.
When the individual can independently and
successfully engage in leisure of his or her own
choice, the individual has the chance to receive
psychological, physical, and social benefits as well
as the more global benefits of improved health,
wellness, and quality of life.”

p. 29
Clients


Any individual with a physical, mental, social, or
emotional condition that limits leisure functioning
Individuals with illnesses, disabilities, or conditions
acknowledged by health and human services
classification systems





Medical & psychiatric classification schemes
DSM V
WHO, ICF
Healthy People 2020
Also includes legal offenders, at-risk youth

Deviation from social norms & become recipients of
specialized services
Clients (Major groups)

Psychiatric and mental health services


Geriatrics


30%
Physical medication services


35%
18.4%
Developmental disabilities

13.6%

Riley & Connolly, 2007
Settings



Any agency or center that serves the clients
we discussed
Clinical, residential, community
Page 31-32
Settings (Major settings)

Hospitals


19.3%
Residential &
transitional settings


38.6%
Skilled nursing facilities







14.4%
3.6%
Schools


3.9%
Day care/day treatment

15.0%
Community settings
Partial/outpatient
facilities
1.9%
Correctional centers

1.4%

Riley & Connolly,
2007
Process

Selection, development, implementation, and
evaluation of goal oriented services
Functional intervention
 Leisure education
 Recreation participation

Purpose of TR

Is to facilitate the development, maintenance,
and expression of an appropriate leisure
lifestyle

p. 33
Leisure Lifestyle

Is the day-to-day behavioral expression of
one’s leisure-related attitudes, awareness,
and activities revealed in the context and
composite of the total life experience

p. 14
Leisure Lifestyle (cont.)

Implies that an individual has sufficient skills,
knowledge, attitudes, and abilities to
participate successfully in and be satisfied
with leisure and recreation experiences that
are incorporated into his or her individual life
pattern. (Peterson & Stumbo, 2000, p. 7)
Leisure Lifestyle as an
Outcome Means Client …





Has reduced functional limitations that
prohibit leisure involvement (or has learned
how to overcome these barriers)
Understands and values the importance of
leisure
Incorporates leisure into daily life
Is competent in a variety of leisure activities
Has adequate social skills for involvement
with others
Leisure Lifestyle as an
Outcome Means Client …



Is able to choose between several leisure
options and make decisions for leisure
participation
Is able to locate and use leisure resources
Has increased perceptions of choice,
responsibility, and independence with regard
to leisure

p. 70
In other words….



TR is helping individuals with disabilities
and/or illnesses develop and more freely
express their leisure choices
AND
The outcome of TR services is the improved
ability of the individual to make and act on
choices for leisure that are rewarding and
successful
Psycho-Social Theories of
Leisure Behavior




Perceived freedom & personal choice
Intrinsic motivation
Self-efficacy, locus of control, & causal
attribution
Optimal experiences (flow)
Leisure Ability Model

3 major categories of service




Functional Intervention
Leisure Education
Recreation Participation
See p. 34
Functional Intervention



Focus is on improving functional behaviors
which are prerequisites to, or necessary part
of, leisure involvement
Baseline abilities that are prerequisite to
typical leisure behavior
4 domains




Physical
Mental/cognitive
Emotional/affective
Social
Sample Functional Behaviors
Addressed by TR Intervention




Depression: decreased energy level; inability to
express emotions appropriately, decreased stamina
Dementia: minimal orientation; limited attention span
Intellectual disability: delayed motor and social
development; limited attention span
Spinal Cord Injury: minimal strength; endurance;
depression
Functional Intervention

Role of CTRS


Degree of Control


Therapist
Intervention mostly controlled by therapist
Degree of Freedom in Participation

Obligatory behavior, constrained, prescribed,
dependent, extrinsically rewarded
Leisure Education


Focus on the development and acquisition of
various leisure-related skills, attitudes, and
knowledge
4 components





Leisure Awareness
Social Interaction Skills
Leisure Activity Skills
Leisure Resources
See p. 43
Leisure Awareness


Cognitive appreciation of leisure
Content includes, but not limited to:






Knowledge of leisure
Self-awareness in relation to leisure
Leisure and play attitudes
Related leisure participatory and decision-making
skills
Can be separate or combined programs
See page 45-48
Social Interaction Skills

Communication skills


Relationship-building skills


Friendship development, cooperation, competition
Self-presentation skills


Assertiveness, active listening, empathy
Manners, hygiene, grooming, appropriate attire
See page 49-52
Leisure Activity Skills


Develop a repertoire of diverse leisure skills
Two categories



Traditional
Nontraditional
See page 52-56
Leisure Resources





Activity opportunities
Personal resources
Family and home
resources
Community resources
State and national
resources

Knowledge

Utilization

See pages 57-60
Leisure Education

Role of CTRS

Instructor, advisor, counselor


BUT cautions about use of term counselor
Degree of Control

Responsibility shared between CTRS & client
Recreation Participation

Focus on providing an opportunities for fun,
enjoyment, and self-expression within
organized delivery systems




Leagues, tournaments
Special Events
Activities requiring specialized equipment
Opportunities for self-initiated activity
Recreation Participation Goals




Increase ability to assume responsibility for
personal leisure participation
Increase ability to make and follow through
on decisions, regarding leisure involvement
Increase competence in leisure skills through
practice and involvement
Increase sense of mastery through
attainment and performance of skills
Recreation Participation Roles







Practice and application of skills
Inclusionary program
Normalization of institutional routine
Focus on “well” aspects of client
Expression of leisure lifestyle
Diversion or palliative purposes
Fun & belonging
Recreation Participation

Role of CTRS


Degree of Control


Leader, facilitator, supervisor
Opportunity for participation provided for client
Degree of Freedom

Independent, self-regulated, intrinsically
rewarding
Leisure Ability Model




Programs/interventions based on individual
client need that is related to leisure
All populations
All settings
May need services in 1, 2, or all 3 areas
Leisure Ability Summary

Assumptions (Rationale):




Leisure is a need & right of all individuals
Many individuals experience constraints &
barriers to leisure
TR services are designed to facilitate individuals’
independence in leisure functioning
Mission: Leisure

Leisure is end product or outcome
Summary (Cont.)

Definition of TR (Purpose)


To facilitate the development, maintenance, and
expression of an appropriate leisure lifestyle for individuals
with physical, mental, emotional or social limitations
Service Areas



Functional Intervention
Leisure Education
Recreation Participation
Leisure Ability Strengths





Extensive use in field (most
widely used)
Acceptability & utilization in
field
Flexibility (settings &
population)
Services based on client
needs
Stood test of time





Oldest
Fostered consistency in
practice
Brought profession together
Most recognized
Recognizes importance of
recreation participation
Strengths (Cont.)




Referenced in NCTRC
& accreditation
Common sense
approach to TR
High degree of merit
Tied to leisure theory



Graphics clear, concise
& comprehensive
Good clarity of terms
Good for program
design (1-1 or group)
Leisure Ability Concerns




Based on nondisabled
adult leisure behavior
Some terms ill defined
(leisure lifestyle)
Focuses on leisure
instead of therapy
Too broad




More empirical
research is needed
Widely debated
Problems with
conceptual/theory
Recreation participation
is not reimbursable
service
Concerns (Cont.)



Recreation participation
as role of CTRS
Lack of attention to
health & independent
functioning outside of
leisure
Programs designed for
1 outcome


Linear
conceptualization
Not in concert with
current health cares’
focus on functional
outcomes
Is Therapeutic Recreation a
means to an end or an end in
itself?
Means means…




Instrumental
Tool to produce some other outcome (eg. Improve
health, decrease depression)
Recreation as an agent (means) of change
Means is anything that contributes to the attainment
of an end. It receives it value in proportions to its
utility for yielding an end. A means, therefore, is
subordinate to an end and has no value unless
directed toward one.
Means (Cont.)


Means orientation indicates change or
improvement of functional behaviors as the
desired end.
Draws from a medical, psychiatric,
psychological and human development body
of knowledge
End means…



Intrinsic
Leisure or recreation is the outcome that TR
services aim to produce
End is anything that is valuable in its own
right and is done for its own sake. An end is
good for its own sake
Ends (Cont.)



Implies that the ultimate outcome is related to
leisure behavior
Draws on the body of knowledge related to
leisure
Some models regard leisure as both a means
& an end

Both a tool and a product of TR services
Can TR be both at the same
time?

Does the Leisure Ability Model emphasize one over
the other? Which? How?
Criteria to Evaluate TR
Practice Models







Easy to follow (graphic depiction, clarity of terms &
concepts)
Accommodates a variety of clients & settings
Flexibility in types of services
What is the end goal? Purposes
Underlying assumptions
Theoretical bases
Direction for research & practice


Could you explain TR with this model?
Could you design programs?