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Document related concepts
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Appealing to emotions rather than
reason to get people to think a
certain way
Its not bad, we all use it to get agreement
• Using words to create
fear and prejudice
• Examples: racist, nerd,
Sticks and stones will
break my bones but
words will never hurt me
2. Glittering Generalities
• Vague, sweeping statements
(often slogans or simple
catchphrases). It says little
or nothing at all.
• Examples: American as
apple pie
Change you can believe in
New and improved
Pepsi generation
3. Transfer
• Attaching something we approve of or
admire to something we should accept.
• Examples: Using symbols such as flags
as backdrop when speaking.
Having Brittany Spears sell a
face cream – I will look like her
Uncle Sam or the American
4. Testimonial
• Having a celebrity or expert to endorse a
candidate or product hoping that the
audience will follow their example
• Examples: Oprah for Obama
UNCHARTED 3 (game)
5. Card Stacking
Stating the good or bad
facts about the candidate or
product guaranteeing a
fixed result (stacking the
deck). It is hard to detect
because all information is
necessary for us to make
the best decision.
• Examples: How Bush took
took us to Iraq.
How drug companies sell
6. Plain Folks
• Portraying candidate or product of humble
origins, someone you can trust and has
values like you.
• Examples: Sarah Palin cooking during
Candidate in open-neck shirt
and rolled up sleeves
7. Bandwagon
• Persuading an audience to
follow the crowd. Creates
impression of wide support.
• Examples: Polls are used to
show support
9 out of 10 doctors
recommend aspirin.
Everyone else is doing it so
so why don’t you?