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Transcript
History of the Nike Swoosh:
The Nike Swoosh is one of the most
recognized symbols in the world. Simple,
fluid, fast. Designed by Carolyn
Davidson in 1971, the logo first carried
the Nike name. Ultimately the logo
became so recognizable that the name
Nike was dropped from the design. In
today’s marketing, many Nike ads never
even mention the company name…the
swoosh is enough.
This is known as advertising:
Advertising is attempting to influence
the behavior or beliefs of your target
market (i.e. customer or client) by
providing a persuasive selling message
about your products and/or services.
The purpose is to persuade us to believe
in something or to do something that we
would not normally believe or do.
What is propaganda?
Propaganda is the spreading of false information to
purposely mislead people.
Propaganda shares techniques with advertising. Advertising can
be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product
or shapes the perception of an organization, person or brand.
Nazi propaganda was used to instill Nazi racist ideology and to
change patterns of traditional behavior. Focusing on the major
enemy (the Jew), the Nazis used false claims, deceptions and
outright lies to justify and gain support for their murderous
policies. Propaganda infiltrated all aspects of society including
education, books, games, radio and movies. The average German
was bombarded with Nazi ideology every minute of every day.
propaganda

As generally understood, propaganda is opinion
expressed for the purpose of influencing actions
of individuals or groups.

More formally, the Institute for Propaganda
Analysis has defined propaganda as
"expression of opinion or action by individuals or
groups deliberately designed to influence opinions or
actions of other individuals or groups with reference to
predetermined ends."

Propaganda thus differs fundamentally from
scientific analysis. The propagandist tries to "put
something across," good or bad. The scientist
does not try to put anything across; he/she devotes
his/her life to the discovery of new facts and
principles.

The propagandist seldom wants careful scrutiny
and criticism; his/her object is to bring about a
specific action. The social scientist, on the other
hand, is always prepared for and wants the most
careful scrutiny and criticism of his/her facts and
ideas. Science flourishes on criticism. Propaganda
crumbles before it.

As Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson point out,
"every day we are bombarded with one persuasive
communication after another. These appeals persuade
not through the give-and-take of argument and debate,
but through the manipulation of symbols and of our
most basic human emotions. For better or worse, ours
is an age of propaganda." (Pratkanis and Aronson, 1991)
In our age of advanced technology
(with so much information), it is
often difficult to distinguish
truth from opinion.
German/Nazi Propaganda Posters




Posters were an important propaganda tool.
The imagery helped “plant” suggestions in
people’s minds.
Effective propaganda almost always works
below the level of consciousness, leaving its
target feeling a powerful belief that he/she
“knows” the position is true; a position that
he/she is certain was arrived completely on
his/her own.
It also does not exist in a vacuum. Much of its
effectiveness comes through constant
repetition.
You are about to see TEN (10) classic
posters from the Nazi era. You are to
work in small groups to see if you can
spot the messages that they were trying
to suggest.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HINT: Nothing was ever put in the posters by
accident. Everything carried a message.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
They were carefully crafted distortions and
misrepresentations in an orchestrated campaign of
misinformation.
Slide #1
[The Eternal Jew: grand political
exhibition at the German
Museum in Munich beginning
November 8, 1937]
Slide #2
'Your Own KdFCar' poster, 1939 ©
Slide #3
“The seed of peace,
not dragon's teeth”
cartoon of Hitler, from the
magazine Kladderadatsch,
22 March 1936 ©
Slide #4
The German Student
Fights for the Fuhrer
(Hitler) and the Nation
(and the people).
Slide #5
This poster probably
dates to the mid-1930's.
Support relief for
mother and child
Slide #6
“The Nazi Party
safeguards the
People of the
Nation”
"[If] You need advice
or help, turn to your
'local group.”
Slide #7
“Country, Work, Service”
Poster from mid to late 1930's
"We build body and soul"
Slide #8
Poster after 1936
"Long live Germany!"
Slide #9
Germ
(April 15, 1943, issue of Der Sturmer)
…from Julius Streicher's Der Stürmer.
Streicher, one of Hitler's earliest followers,
published the paper from 1923 to 1945.
During the Third Reich, Stürmer display cases
were found all over Germany.
The Jew carries the poison of the weak. A
syndrome (sickness) emerges and is
causing this downward spiral. However
our blood is pure. We (true Germans) are
healthy! (loose translation)
Slide #10
The caption:
“The Jew: The inciter
of war, the prolonger of
war.”
This poster was released in late 1943
or early 1944.
Courtesy of Dr. Robert D. Brooks.
OK – go to work!
In groups, try to “find”
what messages are
being conveyed.
The Crusader w/ cross –
based in the belief that Christ
would return to earth for a
1000 year period. (the white
saint?)
The connection of
the Nazi soldier
and the Crusader
Multi-headed red snakes – stars of
David, Protocols of Zion,
KDP=Christian Democratic Party,
SDP=Social Democratic Party,
RF=Republican Front?
Nazi propaganda often portrayed
WWII as a war for Christianity.
Arm around
Nazi soldier
The Multi-headed dragon is
a well-known image from
Christianity – St. Michael
and the Dragon (good v.
evil/Satanic forces).
The white countryside with a
cross on its side – Nazism
found its roots in the
peasantry/agriculture
Crusader = St. Michael slaying the 3-headed
dragon (direct/saintly connection to God ???)
The soldier (uniform - authority,
Swastika on belt) “draped” in the robe
w/ the Swastika (powerful symbol)
Your turn…
Look for all the blatant and subtle messages.
#1
Eternal Jew
He is hunched
over/physically
different/misshapen
– suggests Jews
are not normal
(demonic in
appearance –
“spawn of the devil;
killers of Christ)
The hand is begging for
money – Jews were
accused of greed
(money lenders w/
extortionist interest
rates)(gold coins –
selling out Germany?)
The Jew is infecting the
country w/ Communism
There is a hammer and
sickle on a map of the
western part of the
USSR – suggests a
link between Jews and
Communism *
He is holding a whip. He
is a ‘slave-driver’ (cruelty,
suspicion that the gold
coins were ill-got).
The print type is somewhat
hieroglyphic, occult, and
satanic-looking (Hebraic
form of German – implying
Jewish control of Germany)
* There is some debate what is in his hand...some have said land, others have said a heart (look at the shape)...in
other words taking the heart out of good loyal Germans. Jews – inherently disloyal, perpetrators of foreign plots . . . .
The poster for the 'Eternal Jew' exhibition, 1937 ©
Entrance to "The Eternal Jew" exhibition
This photograph shows the entrance to "The Eternal Jew" exhibition when it
travelled for display in Vienna, in German-annexed Austria. The poster appears on
the Vienna railway station building. Vienna, Austria, August 1938.
USHMM, courtesy of Morris Rosen
#2
Your Own Car
The woman is blond
haired and dressed
conservatively. This
is a typical Nazi
view of women (no
make up/natural
look – white teeth)
The VW beetle was
designed by Otto
Porsche & Hitler
The mountains
suggest a link
between Germans
and the rural ideal
(also symbolize
the pure Nordic
roots of Nazism)
Nazi policies are
associated with
wealth and a
good lifestyle
'Your Own KdF-Car' poster, 1939 ©
They are
obviously
happy with
this lifestyle
#3
The seed of peace not dragon’s teeth
There is an
angel. This
suggests that
German
greatness is a
positive thing
and not a
threat
Hitler is walking on
a map of Europe,
eastward
The imagery is
quite deliberate. It
is based on a
parable in the Bible
in which a man
sows seeds.
Suggests a link
between Hitler and
God
Hitler = Jesus
“The seed of peace, not dragon's teeth” cartoon of Hitler, from the magazine Kladderadatsch, 22 March 1936 ©
The archangel Gabriel – announcing a new order?
#4
The Nazi flag
is prominently
displayed.
Blonde hair,
athletic, fit,
strong, good
looking
This young man
is blonde haired
and welldressed.
This is a typical
Nazi view of
young men
A sense of
power is
conveyed.
The word,
“Kampft”struggle or fight.
The word
“VOLK” (folk)
(people) is
used.
All students were forced
to join the Hitler Youth –
Boy Scouts declared a
Jewish plot.
German Students Fight for Hitler and Nation
#5
Nazi party
Symbol (NJ =
National Socialist
Jugend – youth
movement)
Role of the woman
is to be a mother
(blonde, strong,
bear children)
Farming in
background –
church in
background
Hitler pointed out
that unemployment
in 1933 was
equivalent to the
number of women
who came into the
workforce since 1914.
Average family size
was supposed to have
4 children. Peasants
were the backbone
of society.
Sun = halo
It promotes the Nazi charitable organization
(the NSV). The text: "Support the assistance
program for mothers and children."
#6
The caption loosely translates as, "The National
Socialist Party will save the people's
community. The people's community will then
turn to you and the party." Posters of this type
The family is engulfed by the Nazi party
(their guardian) – the eagle towers over
them, and stares intently off in the distance.
illustrate the disconnect between the party rhetoric and
the reality of party policy.
The “strong” eagle (power) – almost
a “wing of an angel?” (protecting this
wholesome/ideal German family)
The Aryan Family (white, blonde, attractive,
blue-eyed, happy) (farm family) – without the German
inscriptions, this image might be mistaken from a Norman Rockwell painting.
The idea of a "Volksgemeinschaft," a community of the
people, had a very powerful, very idealistic appeal,
comparable to the idealistic appeal that some
communist groups were attempting to make at the
same time.
The analogy is suggested by the use of the word
"Volksgenossen," literally "comrades," a term widely
used by the Soviet Communist Party at the time.
Only the little girl isn’t looking at the baby but rather looking at us – in a way INVITING us into the circle.
The slogan on the poster reads "[If] You need advice or help, turn to your 'local group.” In other words, the suggestion is "We are here to help."
Depiction of the
"pure Aryan" family,
1938
A depiction of the
"pure Aryan" family
on the cover of the
1938 calendar
published by Neues
Volk, the magazine
of the Nazi Party's
Race Political
Office. Note the
eagle hovering in
the background.
#7
“Country, Work, Service”
Strong/fit youth
(blonde, blue-eyed)
– the future of
Germany
Conveys the message of
Germany being united
The goal of the Reich Labor
Force was to train and teach
through regimented exercise,
work and sports (train young
men for the military).
It promotes the Nazi labor
service, for which men were
expected to volunteer. The
caption: "We build body and
soul."
#8
This poster makes a direct
Christological comparison.
Just as a dove descended on
Christ when he was
baptized by John the
Baptist, so what looks to be
an eagle hovers against the
light of heaven over an
idealized Hitler. The text:
"Long live Germany!."
A strong, numerous,
and united Germany –
power granted from
God.
Oak leaf border = symbol of strength
and longevity in Nazi iconography
Sun = halo
#9
Jews (Stars of
David), Capitalists
(dollar signs), and
Communists
(hammer & sickle)
are ALL part of the
disease under
inspection!
Jews = bad blood
Scapegoat for the
decline of Germany?
Remember that Germany
was the leader in
science and medicine –
microscope legitimizes
that Jews are
contaminating Germany!
Jew = a germ (or)
a sickness!
Jews = root of all
evil
Microscope =
indication that
Jews were “hiding
something.” If you
examine them
closely, you will
find that they are
really poisoning the
good German!
Der Stürmer was probably the most infamous newspaper in history. For twenty-two years every issue denounced Jews in crude,
vicious, and vivid ways. Although Streicher employed a large staff by the end of the 1930s, he always had the final say, "Streicher and
the Stürmer, they are one and the same," he would say proudly.
#10
The individual is
portrayed as ugly,
grotesque, and
somewhat
demonic.
The fire in the
background –
they are
destroying our
way of life – or –
this is what
should happen to
them??????
What is revealed
behind the curtain?
Large nose,
protruding chin,
sinister eyes….
The Jew is a
traitor/serious
threat to the
homeland.
The Jew is
behind the
curtain
(hiding)
(scheming
against the
state).
Clenched
fists…power
in numbers
The End
"If you tell a lie big enough and
keep repeating it people will
eventually come to believe it."
-- Joseph Goebbels
Nazi Propaganda Minister
“We have made the Reich
by propaganda.”
~
Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945)
German politician, minister of propaganda, member of Hitler’s cabinet council
CINEMA
RADIO
The Nazis made hundreds of
films that carried Nazi
messages. Anti-Jewish films
were also made. Because
Cinema was very popular,
Nazi messages were very
effective.
Goebbels (the man in
charge of Propaganda) used
Radio to broadcast Hitler’s
speeches and Nazi
messages. Foreign radio
stations were banned.
PROPAGANDA
(Trying to persuade people to do or believe
in something)
POSTERS
NEWSPAPERS
Goebbels made sure that
newspapers printed
favourable stories about
the Nazis. Those that did
not were closed down.
RALLIES
These were
impressive gatherings
of German people who
went to listen to
Hitler’s speeches
The Nazis produced
thousands of posters
that were designed to
persuade people to think
or believe in the Nazis
Nazi Propaganda
How can such a monstrous crime as the Holocaust occur? It begins when
people start thinking of themselves as “us” and of others as “them”.
-Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust
• The Hitler Youth
• Education in Nazi Germany
• Media
• 1936 Olympics in Berlin
The Hitler Youth
GIRLS
German Girl’s League,
Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM)
BOYS
Hitler Youth, Hitlerjügend (HJ)
"Youth Serves the Fuëhrer.
All ten-year-olds join the
Hitler Youth."
“All girls join us.”
Nazi Propaganda
German educators were warping pliable young minds in order to mold obedient young
monsters.
- Erika
Mann, School for Barbarians
• The Hitler Youth
• Education in Nazi Germany
• Media
• 1936 Olympics in Berlin
Education in Nazi Germany
The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. - Diogenes
“The Jewish Question is the Key to World History.”
The German National Catechism
for Young Germans in School
and on the Job:
“Which race must the National Socialist race
fight against?
The Jewish race.
Why?
The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler
of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys
works of culture. He is not a creative spirit,
rather a destructive spirit.”
Werner May, Deutscher National-Katechismus
2nd edition (Breslau: Verlag von Heinrich
Handel, 1934), pp. 22-26
Typical School Day
The teacher begins and ends the instruction
by leading the assembled students in the
greeting:
The teacher raises the right arm and
declares “Heil Hitler.”
The students raise their right arms and
respond Heil Hitler.”
Raising the Swastika Flag at a school
in Berlin.
Changes in the Curriculum
Math Problems Twisted to Promote Nazi Ideology
According to careful estimates
there are 300,000 mentally
ill persons, epileptics, etcetera in
long-term care facilities in
Germany.
The Jews are aliens in Germany.
What is the total yearly cost of
their care assuming daily costs
of 4 RM per person?
What is the percentage of
aliens?
How many marriage loans for
1,000 RM each could be made
yearly with this money?
In 1933 there were 66,060,000
inhabitants of the German
Reich, of whom 499,682 were
Jews.
Excerpt from this Nazi Biology
Textbook for Middle School Students:
As we have already noted,
people do not live as individuals
like animals and plants, but as peoples,
which largely have come together
as ethnic states. We know something
similar only with insects. Bees and ants
are not only the sum of individuals;
each individual shares a united drive
in service of the entire group….
The ethnic state must demand of each
individual citizen that he does
everything for the good of the whole,
each in his place and with his abilities.
See Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde
für Mittelschulen. Fünfter Teil. (Halle: Hermann
Schroedel Verlag, 1942), pp. pp. 168-173.
Math Book for First Grade, Hirt Publishing, 1937.
The Poisonous Mushroom
“The Poisonous Mushroom”
“How Jewish Traders Cheat”
“The Experience of Hans and
Else with a Strange Man”
“How To Tell A Jew “
Popular children’s board game, “Juden Raus!” (Jews Out).
By throwing dice, the winner manages to get six Jews out of their homes and businesses (the
circles) and on the road to Palestine. It sold over a million copies in 1938, when Nazi policy was
forced Jewish emigration.
Additions to the Curriculum:
Teaching Nazi Racial Ideology
Classroom chart entitled "German Youth,
Jewish Youth." Published in a textbook on
heredity, genealogy, and racial studies.
Two Jewish children humiliated in front of the
classroom. The blackboard reads: "The Jews are
our greatest enemy! Beware of Jews."
Racial instruction is to begin with the youngest pupils (six years of age) in accordance with
the Führer’s instruction that no boy or girl should leave school without complete knowledge
of the necessity and meaning of blood purity.
- Bernhard Rust, Reich Minister for Science & Education
Additions to the Curriculum:
Teaching War Oriented Sports
Throwing grenades as a school sport.
Education in a general way is to be the
preparation for later army service. The
Army will then not need,
as has hitherto been the case, to give
the young man a grounding in the
simplest exercises and rules….
it should rather change the young man,
already physically perfect, into a soldier.
- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf
Battle Ball (Kampfball)
Nazi Propaganda
Any lie, frequently told, will gradually gain acceptance.
– Adolf Hilter, Mein Kampf
• The Hitler Youth
• Education in Nazi Germany
• Media
• 1936 Olympics in Berlin
Media-Newspaper
“Der Stürmer“, an
antisemitic tabloid, was
posted on billboards for
all to read, under the
heading: Die Juden sind
unser Unglück (The Jews
are our Misfortune).
Völkischer Beobachter,
(“People's Observer”),
daily newspaper
published by the Nazi
Party in Germany from
the 1920’s until 1945.
Media-Radio
Free distribution of radios in honor of
Joseph Goebbel’s birthday.
Berlin, October 29, 1938.
"All Germany hears the Führer on the People's Receiver."
The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listenership, developed an inexpensive
radio receiver to make it possible for as many as possible to hear Nazi
propaganda.
Media-Film
The Eternal Jew, the
most famous Nazi
propaganda film.
Jew Pests, a film aimed
at influencing audiences
to hate Jews.
A propaganda film
designed by Nazis for
Nazis.
Media-Posters
For young men, service to the totalitarian
state meant fighting the Fuhrer's wars, but
for women service meant producing
racially pure children for the Reich.
"Healthy Parents have
Healthy Children."
Nazi propaganda poster
encouraging healthy
Germans to have large
families.
Nazi Propaganda
Propaganda has absolutely nothing to do with the truth. - Josef Goebbels
• The Hitler Youth
• Education in Nazi Germany
• Media
• 1936 Olympics in Berlin
1936 Olympics in Berlin
The torch lighting ceremony.
Spectators salute Adolf Hitler during
the games.
German spectators spell out the phrase, directed at
Adolf Hitler, "Wir gehoeren Dir" [We belong to you].
Jesse Owens' medal
ceremony for the long jump.
Two propaganda versions of Adolf Hitler show the German dictator from opposite viewpoints. A
pro-Hitler poster, left, portrays him as a heroic warrior crowned with a halo of light. An anti-Hitler
cartoon, right, pictures him as a ridiculous, loudmouthed tyrant. (U.S. Army Center of Military History; National
Archives, Collection U.S. Office of War Information)
Propaganda
today?
Red Meat and Red Faces
Newsweek, June 27, 1988
@. 1984 SCOTT. FORESMAN & COMPANY
Courtesy Fleming Companies
Fleming, which has distributed the posters to IGA, Thriftway, Piggly Wiggly,
United Super and hundreds of other supermarkets across the country, said that
the striking resemblance is only coincidence. “We’re not trying to send out any
subliminal Nazi messages,” says spokesperson Cheryl Hudak.
BBC - The World at War (Document from WWII - 4 minute video)
Jews are not wanted here. / "Juden! Sind hier unerwuenscht."
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGNyc_LlJhs
Image: "The Jewish peril.
Protocols of wise Zion."
The Protocols of the
Elders of Zion was a
forgery used to incite
antisemitism about the
protocols of the Elders of
Zion (French edition). The
Protocols discuss a
Jewish plot to infiltrate
sections of civilization.
Date: 1903
1992 Russian
edition of the
Protocols
An Arabic edition
of The Protocols
of the Elders of
Zion published in
Egypt in 2003, on
sale in London.
This Spanish-language
edition declares that
whether or not one
believes the Protocols are
authentic, history has
demonstrated that Zionists
intend to dominate the
world. Such “logic” is a
common response to the
many exposures of the
Protocols as fraudulent.
Published in Mexico City,
2005.
— Credit: USHMM Collection
The hand of the Jew
controls… money, the
papacy, communism, the
freemasons, and the
Nazi German!
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Although fewer than 1,000 of
Japan’s 128 million residents are
Jewish, millions of books based
on the Protocols have been sold
there. In this edition, antisemitic
ideologue Ota Ryu claims that
Jews dominate the Western
nations and that Japan must
guard vigilantly against a Jewish
takeover. Published in Tokyo,
2004.
— Credit: USHMM Collection
This Syrian edition of the
Protocols claims that the
terrorist attacks of
September 11, 2001, were
orchestrated by a Zionist
conspiracy. The final
chapter predicts the
eventual destruction of
the State of Israel.
Published in Damascus,
Syria, 2005.
— Credit: USHMM
Collection, gift of the
Embassy of Israel
Comments/Questions???
Mark L. Lagergren
Central High School
531 Morse Street
Norwood Young America, MN 55368
[email protected]
952.467.7100 (High School Office)
952.467.7140 (Voice Mail)