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Introduction to Public Relations Part One Public Relations…The Profession Chapter 2 A Brief History of Public Relations Lesson 2A © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. A Conceptual Schema for Studying Public Relations Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 The Profession Introduction History The Process The Publics The Practice Research Media Relations Financial Chapter 2 falls here. Strategic Planning Public Affairs and Government Employee Relations Not-forProfit Theory Corporate Action and Communication Law and Ethics Community Relations Emerging Trends Evaluation Slide 2 of 38 Consumer Relations In Part One—Chapter 2, Our Focus is the History of PR We will look at the history of Public Relations before, during and after the industrial revolution and the changes that have occurred in the field. Today’s Learning Objectives are… Understand that even powerful people cannot ignore the opinions of the public. Realize how a democracy is dependent on a strong, opinionated public. Witness how an intentional and sustained campaign to broadly influence the public can be very effective. Is public relations history important? Why Study the Historical Roots of Public Relations? To excel in a sociological profession (like public relations), you must master its cultural roots. What are the dynamics in a culture (past and present) that make your field vital to successful involvement in that culture? What forces shaped your culture regarding how people think and behave relative to your profession? Made in America Public relations as a profession was initially an American phenomenon. By the end of the 20th century, the same forces were mandating a need for PR throughout the industrialized world. Leaders through the centuries have always sought to influence their publics. Let’s examine some early attempts. Great Communicators of the Premodern Era Who would you say influenced the public the most by delivering a speech? Pope Urban II Abraham Lincoln Winston Churchill Martin Luther King Johnny Carson Many historians believe that Pope Urban did. Never heard of him, you say? How a speech united a continent… The Speech that Inflamed a Continent Pope Urban declared the misdeeds of the Seljuks in a speech given in Claremont, France (A.D. 1095). • In his speech, he challenged Europe to send an army to protect the holy places and Christian visitors in Palestine from the Seljuk Turks. • Europe overwhelmingly responded to Urban’s challenge, and thus began the Crusades that lasted for two centuries From Pope Urban we learn: • • Click image to read Pope Urban’s speech. Slide 8 of 38 To influence people, we must identify sincerely with their common passions. We must clearly and publicly express our aspirations. The Timing of Luther’s List Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation with a list of grievances. In 1517 he publicly posted a list of 95 grievances he held against the church leaders in Rome.Within a few years, half of Europe supported Luther’s ideas. A few decades earlier, Luther probably would have been burned at the stake for his protest (as was Jon Hus). But in 1517, much of Europe was brewing for radical change and Luther knew it. Slide 9 of 38 Click to read a few of Luther's arguments in his 95 Theses. The Role of Public Opinion Throughout history, leaders have courted public sentiments to sustain their power. Even monarchies or dictators cannot afford to ignore public attitudes. They often take pains to assure that their subjects are supportive of their regime. Constitutional monarchies and democracies arose from a self-consciousness of the people. One change was indirectly influenced by an unpopular, political philosopher. That philosopher was Locke… The Influence of John Locke The concept of the natural right of people to oversee their rulers was developed by English philosopher John Locke (d. 1704) and later adopted by Thomas Jefferson. Locke taught radical ideas that were very unpopular with European rulers but became accepted in America, such as… Governments derive their power from the consent of their subjects. Democracy is a very advanced and more natural form of government. Click to read about John Locke, prophet of modern democracy. www.rjgeib.com/ Democracies thrive on public opinion… America—Dynamic Greenhouse for Public Power Unique and simultaneous political-cultural forces created a new power for public opinion in young America: A democratic and republican government of, by and for the people Free markets Systems of checks and balances A rise in affluence and education for “commoners” An independent population voting with ballots and dollars Such forces caused public relations to be made in America. Public Relations in the Revolutionary War Before the American Revolutionary War (17741783) began, colonial leaders had no wish to pursue war with Britain. The revolution had to be a popular war if democratic ideas were to work. Yet, the leaders recognized a problem—only one-third of Americans favored independence. Two leaders of the revolution shrewdly appealed to public sentiment. Samuel Adams - a true campaigner George Washington - a maximizer of success Adams was before his time regarding influence… Samuel Adams—the Campaigner A member of the Continental Congress, Samuel Adams initiated a sustained, public campaign to influence Americans to seek independence by: Using symbols that were easily identifiable and aroused emotions. Publicizing slogans that are still remembered such as “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” Publicizing events such as “The Boston Massacre” when the British fired into a group of colonists. Staging events such as the Boston Tea Party to influence public opinion. The Boston Tea Party—an act of AngloAmericans dressed as Native Americans. A Broad Appeal to the People’s Idealism – The federalists papers After the Revolutionary War, the Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper essays about the Constitution and the new form of government, were published. The Federalist Papers appealed to Americans for a form of government to guard and enhance three values: ideals of common justice the general welfare of the public the rights of individuals and private property The widespread distribution of the Federalist Papers led to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution (1787-88). Click image to view The Federalist Papers www.law.emory.edu The Industrial Revolution Began A New Era of Public Relations The Industrial Revolution (19th-20th centuries) was a landmark era for public relations. At the end of the 19th century, changes in social and economic conditions mandated new relations between industry and the public. The Industrial Revolution brought about a change in how products were made—from using hand tools at home to using machine and power tools in a factory. There were new and not always pleasant realities of American life: The enforced rhythm of the factory The stress of urban life The vast distinction between bosses and workers During this era, public relations began to develop as an independent profession. Three industrial forces… Slide 16 of 38 Three Major Industrial Forces The modern public relations profession is an outgrowth of three American forces in the 19th-20th centuries: Broad recognition of the power of public opinion Competition among institutions for public support Development of media to quickly influence public opinion Corporate America’s Response Business leaders recognized that new stresses on the populace threatened production. “Corporations gradually began to realize the importance of combating hostility and courting public favor.” —Marie Curtl The term public relations came into use at this time. The earliest appearance was probably in Dorman Eaton's 1882 address to the graduating class of the Yale Law School. American Industry Learned to Value Public Image Business leaders began to hire people adept at understanding how to influence the public. AT&T (1883): Theodore Vail hired Charles J. Smith to manage company conflict with the public. Westinghouse (1889): George Westinghouse, patriarch of his famous electrical company, hired E. H. Heinrichs to establish the first corporate public relations department. The goal was to win the fight against Thomas Edison regarding how the nation would be wired (AC or DC). George Westinghouse used PR to bring us AC current. www.britannica.com Three Stages of PR Development in the Industrial Age Development of these stages was sequential, but all three still exist. Manipulation Cooperation Mutual influence and understanding Today public relations is moving… away from using any available means to achieve desired public opinion toward informing the public and providing information and Let’s consider manipulation… counsel to management Stage One: Manipulation through Press Agentry Businesses would issue press releases characterized by exaggeration, distortion and deception. Based on the public’s willingness to believe anything in print. During this era, the publicity stunt idea gained popularity. A Classic Press Agent Approach P. T. Barnum (d. 1891)—the master press agent: The circus owner Barnum masterfully and, some say, inaccurately used publicity to make money. Click on his image to read a sketch of Barnum’s marketing skills. “Propaganda of the Deed” The Downside In the quest to gain media and public attention, press agentry became increasingly outrageous, exploitive, manipulative, and even cruel. Paul Brousse (French sociologist in 1878) argued for: The Propaganda of the Deed : the idea justified the need for actions to gain public attention to political ideas/grievances. For European anarchists in the late nineteenth century, propaganda of the deed meant bombing, murder, and assassination. Propaganda of the deed became known as terrorism after the 1960s. Slide 23 of 38 Smoke billowing over Tulsa,Oklahoma during 1921 race riots, Alvin C. Krupnick Co., photographer, Library of Congress The Rise of Nonviolent Press Agentry The twentieth century witnessed the use of non-violent, staged events to draw attention to social/political issues. Mahatma Gandhi ingeniously used non-violence to bring independence to India (1930-1947). Inspired by Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully applied non-violent events to change American attitudes and laws about civil rights for black Americans (1960s). The way Gandhi even dressed and traveled were meant to influence public opinion. To learn more about Gandhi, visit this site: www.nuvs.com/ashram Slide 24 of 38 Press Agentry and Hostility The success of press agents in attracting attention and a public response often results in hostility from the press and the public. Such results are assured if the publicity is coupled with blatantly deceptive and manipulative tactics. Press agentry gave public relations a bad name that persists to this day. Public relations practitioners should use press agentry only with high ethics and great care. From manipulation to cooperation… Stage Two: Cooperation through Distribution of Information By the early 1900s, businesses were forced to submit to three new dynamics: numerous governmental regulations increasingly hostile criticism from the press rise of the American labor union movements Public relations moved from the stage of press agentry to an era of public cooperation through distribution of accurate information. The First Publicity Bureau In 1900, George Michaelis established the first publicity bureau in Boston to serve businesses. He gathered factual information about his clients for distribution to newspapers. By 1906, his major clients were the nation's railroads that were seeking to head off adverse regulations being promoted by President Theodore Roosevelt. President Roosevelt vs. the Railroads President Roosevelt, who saw the presidency as “a bully pulpit,'' proved to be more than a match for the Publicity Bureau. The first president to make extensive use of press conferences and interviews, Roosevelt was said to rule the country from the newspapers' front pages. Slide 28 of 38 The Father of Public Relations— Ivy Lee Lee made the first move toward the modern practice of information sharing, such as reporting on employee benefits and safety. Some of his clients were: Pennsylvania Railroad (1906-1909) John D. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike (1914) Moving Toward Openness and Honesty Ivy Lee (d. 1934) www.fredonia.edu/ Lee convinced the corporate clients of his publicity agency (est. 1904) to become more open and honest with the public. The public was no longer to be ignored…nor fooled, in the continuing manner of the press agent. —Eric Goldman Edward Bernays—Pioneer of PR Education Edward Bernays made significant contributions to equipping practitioners for effective service. He taught the first collegiate public relations course at New York University (1923) and wrote the first public relations textbook, Crystallizing Public Opinion . Bernays developed three tools to influence public consent: market research social surveys public opinion polls Click image to read a biography of Bernays (center). Photo from the Museum of Public Relations (prmuseum.com). Committee on Public Information President Woodrow Wilson turned public relations from a defensive tool to an offensive one when he set up the Committee on Public Information in 1917 to gain support for World War I. Led by newspaper man George Creel, the Committee on Public Information was a phenomenal success. The Censor Board of the Committee on Public On May 1, 1917, there were Information; George Creel is seated on the far 350,000 holders of U.S. Bonds. Sixright. Photo from http://www.thehistorynet.com. months later, 10 million held bonds. Stage Three: Mutual Influence and Understanding Now public relations opens a two-way door for influence. It became increasingly obvious to practitioners that organizations communicate with the public not only by words but also by their response to public opinion. This new awareness allowed practitioners to advise management as well as inform the public. Consequently, public relations professionals gained a place in the heart of business organizations—the decisionmaking and operational aspects. Ivy Lee was again in the vanguard… John D. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike The Ludlow Massacre at the miners strike (1914) against Colorado Fuel and Iron Company shocked the nation. Out of the 22 deaths in the Ludlow Massacre, 13 were women and children. Click this box to view photographs of the massacre circulated at the time. Slide 34 of 38 In desperation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the key stockholder, gave Ivy Lee the opportunity to become a consultant on the internal workings of his coal business. Lee strongly recommended to Rockefeller that he improve communications with miners and establish mechanisms to redress workers' grievances. Lee’s emphasis on counseling management to take positive action marked a major shift in public relations theory and practice. Inward Focus on Employees Expands In addition to its outward focus, public relations expanded its inward focus. This had several results. Employees became recognized as a significant public. Ivy Lee persuaded his client American Tobacco Company to introduce profit-sharing for its employees. By 1925, more than half of all major manufacturing companies were publishing employee magazines. The practice moves upward… AT&T and Arthur Page Arthur Page accepted AT&T’s offer of PR vice president on the condition that he would have a voice in company policy. Page set out to win public confidence. This required a continuous and planned program of positive public relations. Click on the image to read a short biography of Arthur Page, a giant of a PR practitioner. Photo from prmuseum.com. AT&T went directly to the public with a film program for schools and civic groups. AT&T paid fees for employees to join outside organizations as representatives. Finally, the company sought to have as many people as possible own its stock. A Summary of the Three Stages of PR Development Manipulation through press agentry: Cooperation through open information: Generally viewed negatively, but misuse can be avoided if cemented with honesty and positive motives. Organization accepts power of external and internal public opinion by providing positive information and action. Mutual influence through understanding: The most effective stage is for organizations and the public to mutually understand and influence each other for the good of all.