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Duration: 19.10.2006 - 01.02.2007
Written examination (Klausur)
Date: ?
BOSS : Prof. Dr. Gode Gravenhorst
Lecturer : Dr. Oleg Panferov
e-mail: [email protected]
tel.: 3912115
Room: 574
Other questions : Frau M.-L. Baumann
tel.: 393683
Room: 582
More information: www.bioklimatologie.uni-goettingen.gwdg.de
Go to www.bioklimatologie.uni-goettingen.gwdg.de
Where can I get a MANUSCRIPT?
Service
Glenn R. McGregor; Simon Nieuwolt, 1998, Tropical climatology: an introduction to
the climates of the low latitudes. 339 pp, ISBN 0-471-96611-8
J.O. Ayoade, 1983, Introduction to climatology for the tropics, 258 pp., ISBN 0-47110407-8
G. C. Asnani. , 1993, Tropical meteorology, Pune : Indian Institute of Tropical
Meteorology,
What‘s CLIMATE?
What‘s WEATHER?
Weather comprises the short-term (hours, days)
characteristic of atmospheric processes at a
given place. It may change from hour to hour,
from day to day.
Climate represents the long-term (years)
properties of the atmosphere at a given place
that means averages, variations, extremes and
their frequency distributions.
“Witterung” (special German word - there is no
English analogue) characterises the atmospheric
condition for period of some weeks within a
season.
What are the climate
characteristics?
1. Insolation - incoming solar energy
2. Air temperature
3. Air humidity
4. Precipitation
5. Wind
6. Atmospheric composition
7. Soil
Climate ?
Plants
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2
nano = 10-9
Ultraviolet (UV)
220 - 3000 nm
Visible
Infrared (IR)
Microwaves
X-rays
gamma-rays
Electromagnetic Spectrum of Sun
Radio waves
Photosynthetically Active Radiation
PAR
400-700 nm
Not Energy, but Number of Photons!
Avogadro‘s Constant NA = 6.022*1023
particles/mol
Micromol = μmol = mol *
Microeinstein μE
-6
10
=
Why different climates?
N
E
W
N
S
S
SUN
N
SUN
24 Hours
Distance difference  3%
Radiation Difference  6%
Plane of the
ECLIPTIC
100 000 years period
 = 23° 27‘ = 23.45° 23.5°

Plane of the ECLIPTIC

Sun Height
Sun Altitude
Intensity = Energy per Area
I = Watt per square meter = W/m2
100 Watt
100 Watt
1 m2
I1 = 100 Watt / 1m2 = 100 W/m2
I2 = 100 Watt / 1.41m2 = 70 W/m2
S1 =1 m2
S2 =1.41 m2
S2 =S1 / SIN 
S2 =1 m2 / 0.70
Solar Constant
1370 W/m2
Average available insolation at the Earth's
surface: July 1983-1990.
Average available insolation at the Earth's
surface: January 1984-1991.
Regions between tropical circles
or TROPICS (between latitudes
23.5°N and 23.5°S) where the
Sun is in Zenit at least once a
year
TOPICS
1. Content and structure of the atmosphere
2. Energy distribution
3. Temperature
4. Pressure
5. Wind
6. Local and regional circulation
7. Tropical storms, Tornadoes, El-Niño
8. Air masses
9. Climates