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◦ When the Europeans
arrived in the
Americas there was
an exchange of ideas
(like Christianity),
plants, animals and
◦ One of the motives for
settling the New World was
to spread Christianity to
the Native Americans.
◦ Spanish and French
Catholics worked as
missionaries to convert the
◦ In general, the French did
not try to change the
Native American customs
as much as the Spanish
missionaries did.
◦ Some natives were
receptive to Christianity,
while others had religion
forced upon them.
Population Decline
The Native American population quickly began
to decline once the Europeans arrived.
When Spanish conquistadors first settled in the
New World, they enslaved many Native
They used Native Americans for farming and
mining for gold and silver. Hard labor and
malnutrition led to the deaths of many Native
Over time, Native American slaves were
replaced by African slaves because the Native
Americans were dying of diseases.
In addition to the maltreatment Native
Americans faced, diseases unknowingly
brought by Europeans also depleted the
Native Americans did not have immunities to
fight off these diseases, which led millions to
die. Native Americans thought the Europeans
brought the diseases to America on purpose.
Experts estimate that 50 percent to 80 percent
of Native Americans died in the first few
decades after European contact.
Competition for Land
◦ With the colonists and Native
Americans occupying the same
lands, competition for land was
◦ Hunting in the same forests and
fishing in the same streams led to a
depletion of animals available for
◦ As a result, many Native Americans
had to leave their ancestral lands to
search for more food.
◦ In addition, the demand for
agricultural products led many
European settlers to clear forests to
make room to plant.
◦ This depleted Native American
hunting grounds, forcing them off
the land they occupied.
◦ The Native American tribes were
independent of one another, so they
were slow to unify in their battles
against European settlers.
Peaceful Coexistence
◦ European settlers learned from
the Native Americans how to
grow American crops, where to
hunt, and how to survive.
◦ Native Americans learned about
new tools, weapons, animals,
and farming methods from the
◦ There are many examples of
peaceful coexistence between
the Native Americans and the
colonists, including the first
Thanksgiving. Without
assistance from the natives, the
Pilgrims may not have survived.
Many Native American males died during
battles with the colonists. What was life was
like for Native American women and children
after that?
◦ A: They were taken as slaves, and many suffered
and died from hard labor and malnutrition.
◦ B: They were treated well by the colonists.
◦ C: They were given small homes and plots of land
for farming by colonists.
◦ D: They were assigned jobs on farms of some
A: They were taken as slaves, and many
suffered and died from hard labor and
What idea most likely helped Native
Americans keep more of their ancestral land?
◦ A: When they were welcoming to the colonists
◦ B: When they were willing to negotiate with the
◦ C: When neighboring tribes would help one another
fight the settlers
◦ D: When they were willing to work the land for the
C: When neighboring tribes would help one
another fight the settlers
Causes of the War
◦ Great Britain and
France competed
over land in the Ohio
River Valley used for
fur trading and
Major Events of the French
& Indian War
1754—Fort Necessity,
◦ The British sent George
Washington with a militia to
build Fort Necessity on the
site of present-day Pittsburgh,
◦ When they arrived, they found
that the French were already
constructing a fort nearby.
◦ The French called this post
Fort Duquesne. Washington
attacked the French but was
outnumbered and captured.
He was soon released to
return to Virginia.
Major Events of the French
& Indian War
1754— Albany, New York:
◦ Members from four colonies
met to discuss ways to work
together to defend themselves
from the French.
◦ They thought of ways to
persuade the Iroquois Indians
to form an alliance against the
◦ Representatives also adopted
Benjamin Franklin’s Albany
Plan of Union.
◦ This plan called for a single
elected government for all of
the American colonies. The
plan failed after all of the
colonies chose not to adopt it.
Major Events of the French & Indian
1755—Path from Alexandria,
Virginia, to Fort Duquesne,
In 1755, British General Edward
Braddock set out from Virginia with
1,400 red-coated troops to confront
the French at Fort Duquesne.
George Washington served as his guide.
Washington warned the British general
against using the formal fighting style,
which was common in Europe at the
time. Braddock ignored the advice, and
his troops were ambushed.
The bright red uniforms and rows of
soldiers made the British easy targets
for Native American and French
Braddock and more than 1,000 of his
men attempted to retreat but were
killed in battle. Washington survived
and led the remaining troops back to
Virginia. Britain declared war on France.
Major Events of the French &
Indian War
◦ Britain also attacked the French
capital of Quebec, in Canada. Due
to its location on a cliff, Quebec
was thought to be impossible to
◦ The British snuck up a path and
climbed the hill during the night.
◦ The British troops gathered on the
Plains of Abraham outside the
French fortress, where they
surprised and defeated the
◦ The victory at Quebec and the
capture of Montreal the following
year led to the end of fighting.
Outcome of the French &
Indian War
The British won the French &
Indian War. In the Treaty of
Paris, the British gained the
Ohio River Valley and land in
Canada. The lands that were
divided in the Treaty of Paris
were still home to many Native
Although the British won the
war, they found themselves
deeply in debt.
Britain passed a series of
unpopular taxes to help pay
for the French & Indian War.
These taxes upset the
colonists and set the stage for
the American Revolution.
Outcome of the French &
Indian War
The colonists protested
and boycotted (refused
to buy) British goods to
show they were unhappy.
The colonists were
willing to pay taxes,
however they wanted to
be represented in
Many of the Acts passed
by Parliament were
repealed only to be
followed by another .
Proclamation of
West of the
Mountains closed to
colonial settlement
Writs of Assistance:
Britain passed the Writs of
Assistance to prevent
American colonists from
smuggling goods.
Colonists were smuggling
goods to avoid paying taxes to
The Writs of Assistance
allowed government officials
to search homes and
warehouses to find smuggled
Colonists felt that this violated
their rights because it did not
require British officials to
obtain a warrant before
Sugar Act of 1764:
To help pay for war debts and
protection, Britain directly taxed
American colonists for the first time.
Colonists argued that they should
not be taxed by Parliament because
they could not vote for its members.
James Otis, one of the most vocal
leaders in Massachusetts, created a
political slogan that summed up
American feelings toward this new
tax: “No taxation without
Parliament also appointed judges to
hear smuggling cases instead of
allowing jury trials. This further
upset colonists, who felt their civil
liberties had been violated.
Stamp Act of 1765:
The Stamp Act taxed almost all
printed material in the
Because this act taxed so many
items, it helped unite the
colonists against Britain.
Samuel Adams helped
organize the Sons of Liberty to
gain support for the Stamp Act
Many colonists boycotted
British goods. Members from
nine colonies met at the Stamp
Act Congress to write a
petition to King George and
Parliament, stating that only
colonial governments had the
authority to tax colonists.
Declaratory Acts of 1766:
In response to colonial
boycotts and demands,
Parliament repealed the
Stamp Act.
The colonists felt
victorious, but Britain
passed another
troublesome law.
The Declaratory Act of
1766 stated that
Parliament had the right
to tax and make
decisions for the colonies
in all matters.
Townshend Acts of 1767:
Due to the failure of the direct
taxes, Parliament imposed an
indirect tax on imported
Basic items that were imported
were taxed at the colonial
The colonists indirectly paid
this tax by paying a higher
price to purchase these items.
The colonists responded with
another boycott.
The Daughters of Liberty,
organized by women, urged
colonists to wear homemade
items and to produce goods at
home to become economically
independent from Britain.
The Writs of Assistance were composed to
allow the British to collect taxes from
colonists who were smuggling goods. How
did the colonists react to this?
◦ A: It discouraged them from sending goods to
◦ B: It created less of a desire for colonial exports
around the world.
◦ C: It helped out colonial businesses that had lost
money to smugglers.
◦ D: It angered colonists who felt their homes were
being searched without just cause.
D: It angered colonists who felt their homes
were being searched without just cause.
Which statement best shows the relationship
between George Washington and General
Edward Braddock during the French and
Indian War?
◦ A: Washington helped Braddock defeat the French.
◦ B: Braddock did not listen to Washington's advice
and was defeated.
◦ C: Braddock did not listen to Washington's warnings
and defeated the French.
◦ D: Washington helped Braddock to win all of his
B: Braddock did not listen to Washington's
advice and was defeated.
Events of the Boston Massacre:
On March 5, 1770, an angry mob in Boston
gathered around nine British soldiers, or
The crowd began to taunt them and
threaten them with wooden clubs and
When their shouts did not provoke the
soldiers, the crowd threw ice at them, and
some in the crowd even yelled "fire!"
When a colonist named Richard Palmes
struck a soldier with a club, a shot finally
rang out. Other shots quickly followed.
Some witnesses later claimed that Captain
Thomas Preston, the commander of the
British troops, ordered his soldiers to fire.
Others said the soldiers fired their
weapons on their own.
The soldiers themselves said their
shooting was in self-defense. When the
smoke cleared, five colonists lay dead or
Samuel Adams, one of the leaders of
the anti-British protests, saw an
opportunity in this tragedy.
He and his allies began calling the
incident "The Boston Massacre."
They helped arouse further anger
against the British with articles and
pictures that described British
soldiers shooting at unarmed
The British tried to calm the colonists
by bringing the soldiers to trial.
In the end, juries made up of
colonists ruled that Preston and most
of his men had fired in self-defense.
Only two of Preston's soldiers were
convicted. But they were only found
guilty of manslaughter. The trials
helped calm American anger.
Parliament also tried to
appease the colonies by
repealing all the duties it
had enacted, except one.
England would not overturn
the tax on tea (Tea Tax).
The colonists boycotted and
on the night of December
16, 1773, the Sons of
Liberty took a further step.
A group of men disguised
as Native Americans
boarded an English ship
that was docked in Boston.
Then they dumped 342
cases of tea into the harbor.
The king was furious with the
colonists, and Parliament passed a
set of laws called the Coercive
The colonists called them "The
Intolerable Acts" because they
were so severe.
The Intolerable Acts closed
Boston's port, reduced the power
of town meetings, and increased
the authority of British royal
The king had hoped the colonists
would give in to his power. Instead
they continued to resist.
Delegates from many colonies met
in the first Continental Congress in
the fall of 1774. They demanded
that Britain remove the Intolerable
Acts. But the British refused.
Which answer best explains the purpose of the
Olive Branch petition?
◦ A: It was written by our Founding Fathers to ask King
George III to protect their rights and to tell him they
wanted peace. It was rejected.
◦ B: It was written by King George III to ask the colonists to
protect his troops and to tell them he wanted peace.
◦ C: It was written by the colonists to ask the Second
Continental Congress to have peace talks with King
George III.
◦ It was written by King George III to ask the Second
Continental Congress to stop fighting British troops and
to pay higher taxes.
A: It was written by our Founding Fathers to
ask King George III to protect their rights and
to tell him they wanted peace. It was rejected.
Which statement best summarizes why delegates
met at the First Continental Congress?
◦ A: Delegates were worried after the Boston Tea Party and
wanted to avoid going to war over taxes and protests.
◦ B: Delegates were tired of being taxed on tea and
wanted to plan a mass protest.
◦ C: Delegates were angry after the Boston Massacre and
wanted to send representatives to make the plans to go
to war.
◦ D: They were angry when the king closed the port in
Boston and wanted to demand that he taken back the
Intolerable Acts.
C: Delegates were angry after the Boston
Massacre and wanted to send representatives
to make the plans to go to war.
The next spring, the British
sent troops to the town of
Concord to seize a supply of
On the way to Concord, the
British soldiers met 70
militiamen in the town of
A shot was fired, the first shot
of the American Revolution.
The British continued to
Concord but met more militia
and more fighting. They were
forced to retreat.
Militia troops from nearby
towns fired on the British
during the long retreat to
Boston, killing and wounding
many soldiers.
In May 1775, the Second Continental
Congress met in Philadelphia to discuss
what to do.
Some delegates wanted to remain loyal to
Britain, others wanted independence, and
others were undecided.
The Second Continental Congress selected
John Hancock as its president. Hancock
was one of the richest colonists. He used
his wealth to fund the Sons of Liberty in
his home state of Massachusetts.
The Second Continental Congress also
selected George Washington as the
commander of the Continental Army.
In an attempt to avoid a full-scale war, the
Congress sent King George the Olive
Branch Petition. In it, the colonists asked
the King to protect their rights and told the
King that they wanted peace.
King George rejected their petition and
began preparing for war.
In January 1776,
Thomas Paine
published a pamphlet
called Common Sense.
In it, he inspired many
Americans to want to
break away from
Britain and declare
He framed the
complaints of the
colonists to be about a
quest for freedom and
not just about taxes.
The rejection of the Olive Branch
Petition and the growing move
toward independence led the Second
Continental Congress to act.
On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee
from Virginia proposed
While debating the issue, the
Congress appointed a committee to
draft the Declaration of
Members of this committee included
Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Roger
Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin
Franklin of Pennsylvania, Robert R.
Livingston of New York, and John
Adams of Massachusetts.
Thomas Jefferson, the youngest
member, wrote the document.
Adams and Franklin made edits to
his original draft.
The colonists had several reasons or grievances
against Britain. They can be broken down into
three areas; economic, courts, and government.
Cutting off of trade
Unfair taxes
No trial by jury
Judge paid by King
Moving trials to Britain
Refusing to pass laws
for the public good.
Taking away of
colonial laws.
Finally, on July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress
approved the Declaration of Independence.
Colonists circulated copies of the Declaration of
Independence following the vote. George
Washington had it read to his troops to inspire
them to fight for a new cause. Celebrations in the
colonies followed the news.
Which answer best shows the effects of the
British sending troops to Concord,
Massachusetts to take the colonists weapons?
◦ A: The first shots of the American Revolution are
fired and war between the colonies and Britain
◦ B: The Sons of Liberty protest by holding the Boston
Tea Party.
◦ C: John Adams and the Sons of Liberty call this the
Boston Massacre to gain colonial support against
the British.
◦ D: Delegates meet at the First Continental Congress
and demand that Britain repeal taxes.
A: The first shots of the American Revolution
are fired and war between the colonies and
Britain begins.
Which statement best explains the impact of
Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense?
◦ A: It encouraged colonists to revolt against King
George III because of the high taxes.
◦ B: It inspired colonists to complain about British
troops entering their homes and being stationed in
their neighborhoods.
◦ C: It encouraged colonists to use diplomacy to get
what they wanted from King George III.
◦ D: It inspired many colonists to declare
independence from England.
D: It inspired many colonists to declare
independence from England.
The British passed the Intolerable Acts and
stationed troops in Boston in response to
what action by the colonists?
A: the Stamp Tax
B: the Boston Massacre
C: the Boston Tea Party
D: the Declaration of Independence
C: the Boston Tea Party
Which answer best states how some
colonists’ views of the American Revolution
were influenced by their jobs?
◦ A: Some colonists were British soldiers.
◦ B: Some colonists traded with England and would
greatly benefit from the increased trade during the
◦ C: Some Patriot colonists depended on England for
their jobs and thought they would lose their jobs if
they remained as colonies.
◦ D: Some Loyalist colonists depended on England for
their jobs and thought they would lose their jobs if
America became independent.
D: Some Loyalist colonists depended on
England for their jobs and thought they
would lose their jobs if America became
The Founding Fathers
prepared for war at the
Second Continental
Most Americans favored
independence after the
publication of Thomas
Paine’s “Common Sense”,
however, not all
Americans supported the
patriots’ struggle for
Those that were against
breaking away from
Britain were called
When the American Revolution began, most
European countries did not give the United
States much of a chance against the might
British Empire. On paper, the British had the
Whig – another term for patriot.
Felt that Parliament should not be
able to tax them without their say.
Wanted representation in
Strong support in the Northeast and
in large cities.
Tories – another name for loyalist.
They felt their interests were still
being represented by the British
Believed that all British subjects
should pay taxes.
Most lived in the South.
Many were recent immigrants from
They were members of the Anglican
Church which was led by the king of
Many were depended on England for
their jobs and thought they would
lose their jobs if America became
•Argued that colonists should
James Otis was
not be taxed by Parliament
head of the
representat because they could not vote for Massachusetts
ion is
its members.
Committee of
tyranny.” •Opposed the writs of assistance Correspondence.
in courts, arguing that searches
without a warrant violated
natural rights.
“It does not •Helped organize the Sons of Liberty. Samuel Adams is the
require a
•Used propaganda describing the
older cousin of John
majority to
events in 1770 as the “Boston
prevail, but
rather an
•Organized the Boston Tea Party after
irate, tireless
Britain passed the Tea Act.
minority keen
•Targeted for imprisonment by the
to set brush British at the Battles of Lexington and
fires in
“The greatest
ability in
business is to
get along
with others
and to
their actions.”
•Funded the Sons of Liberty.
•Selected as president of the Second
Continental Congress.
•Targeted for imprisonment by the
British at Lexington.
John Hancock was
the first to sign the
Declaration of
Independence. His
large, bold signature
was reportedly
written that way so
that King George
could see his name
without his glasses.
•Represented British soldiers in the
John Adams and
Boston Massacre trials.
Thomas Jefferson
was effected
•Member of the Declaration of
both died on the
before the
Independence Committee.
same day. It was July
•Recommended George Washington as 4, 1826, 50 years to
commenced. commander of the Continental Army.
the day that the
•Helped negotiate peace with Britain
Declaration of
after the American Revolution.
Independence was
was in the
minds and
hearts of the
“I’m a great
believer in
luck, and I
find the
harder I work
the more I
have of it.”
•Only 32 when sent as a delegate from
Thomas Jefferson
Virginia to the Second Continental
admired architecture
and spent more than
•Known for his brilliant writing, he was
40 years designing
selected as the primary author of the his home. His home is
Declaration of Independence.
located in
Virginia and is called
with men of
good quality
if you esteem
your own
for it is better
to be alone
than in bad
•Fought with the British in the French
and Indian War.
•Unanimously selected by the Second
Continental Congress as the
commander of the Continental Army
during the American Revolution.
•Offered to serve in the Continental
Army without pay.
George Washington
never attended formal
schooling and had
only known Martha
for three weeks
before he proposed
to her!
“We must all
•Colonial spokesperson in London after the
Benjamin Franklin was the
hang together,
Stamp Act was passed.
only person to sign the
or, assuredly, we •Member of the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of
shall all hang
Independence, the Treaty
•Known as an author, statesman, and scientist.
of Paris, and the
•Helped negotiate the alliance with France
Constitution. His son
Franklin at the
during the American Revolution.
William was a loyalist,
signing of the
which caused a lifelong
Declaration of
division between the two
July 4, 1776
Which Founding Father was selected to serve
in the Second Continental Congress and was
the youngest member?
A: John Adams
B: Benjamin Franklin
C: Thomas Jefferson
D: George Washington
C: Thomas Jefferson
Some colonists supported England instead of
the ideas of the Founding Fathers. Why?
◦ A: Some thought America would lose the war and
did not want to risk human lives.
◦ B: Some were members of the Anglican Church,
which was led by the king of England.
◦ C: Some felt their voices would not be heard in the
new government that would be formed.
◦ D: Some were angry with the Sons of Liberty for
their actions and knew one of these men would be
their new leader.
B: Some were members of the Anglican
Church, which was led by the king of
Advantages for the US:
America was fighting on its home turf,
while Britain had to send troops 3,000
miles away. This made communication
difficult for the British.
America was fighting for the noble
causes of freedom and independence.
Britain hired soldiers to fight battles for
Advantages for the British:
Britain had the strongest navy in the
world, while America did not have an
organized navy.
Britain had the wealth of the empire at its
disposal. America was short on weapons
and supplies due to lack of funds.
Britain had 9 million people and the help
of the loyalists, while America only had
2.5 million people.
Britain had a more experienced, welltrained army, while America had to rely
on the states for troops.
Hessians: name for the German soldiers
that Britain hired to help fight the
Woman and African Americans
during the American
The role of women and African
Americans is often over
Women helped in the American
Revolution by becoming heads
of their households while their
husbands were away at war.
Many took care of their
family’s farms and businesses.
Some participated in the war
efforts by providing nursing
care, and a few others fought
in battle alongside their
African Americans fought on both
sides of the American Revolution.
At the beginning of the war, Britain
appealed to slaves to join the British
war efforts.
Many slaves were promised their
freedom for fighting for the British.
African Americans fought for the
American side as well.
As many as 5,000 African American
soldiers joined the Continental Army.
Some fought because they believed
in the cause, while others fought for
Some escaped from slavery and
joined the fighting, while others
fought in exchange for their
The Hessians were German soldiers
hired through their rulers by
the British Empire.
About 30,000 German soldiers
served in the Thirteen Colonies
during the American Revolutionary
War; nearly half were from
the Hesse region of Germany; the
others came from similar small
German states. In the context of the
British service, they were all referred
to as "Hessians." The American
colonists called them mercenaries.
They were hired in units, not as
individuals. They received wages, but
the prince of their respective states
received most of the funds; Britain
found it easier to borrow money to
pay for their service than to recruit
its own soldiers.
Home Turf
Help from Abroad
Americans used their knowledge of the land and implemented
guerrilla warfare.
Britain relied on support from the sea. The siege at Yorktown
prevented reinforcements.
Knowing the land allowed Americans to know where to ambush.
Loans, soldiers, ships, and supplies from the French were
instrumental to America’s success.
Spain, France’s ally, attacked Britain along the Gulf of Mexico and
in the Mississippi Valley, which diverted Britain’s resources.
George Washington’s leadership was critical.
Americans were fighting for a noble cause, which helped rally
Americans to help the efforts.
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and
John Jay were sent to Paris to
represent the United States and to
discuss the terms of peace. In April
1783, Congress ratified the Treaty of
Paris. What were the terms of the
◦ Britain recognizes the United States
as independent.
◦ U.S. territory stretches from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi
River and north of Spanish Florida to
◦ Britain promises to withdraw troops.
◦ Britain allows the U.S. to fish off
Canadian waters.
◦ British merchants can collect debts
owed to them.
◦ Congress will recommend that all
property be returned to loyalists
(most was never returned).
Which answer best summarizes how the
Hessians helped out the British during the
Revolutionary War?
◦ A: The Hessians allied with Britain for political
◦ B: The Hessians allied with the colonists for political
◦ C: The colonists hired the Hessians as mercenaries
to fight against the British.
◦ D: The British hired the Hessians as mercenaries to
fight against the Americans because they did not
have enough soldiers themselves.
D: The British hired the Hessians as
mercenaries to fight against the Americans
because they did not have enough soldiers