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3 Nations vied for world domination in the 17th and 18th centuries: Spain, France, and England The French established Quebec in 1608 as their first colony (New France) in the new world. New France was under total control of the French crown and the colonists enjoyed much less freedom and selfrule than the British colonies in America. By 1750 only 60,000 colonists inhabited New France compared to over 2 million in the 13 British American colonies. The French were allied with the Huron Indians, and helped them fight the Iroquois Confederation in the upper N.Y. area. So the Iroquois allied themselves with the British. New France’s one valuable commodity was furs, especially beaver. See map of fur posts in North America on pg 108 The fur trappers trapped the beaver to near extinction and exposed Native Americans to white culture, disease, trade goods, and alcohol. Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit in 1701 Robert de La Salle floated down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682 and named the interior basin Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV. Controll of this river was vital to this American regon. The French founded New Orleans in 1718. They wanted to Compete with the Spanish Empire The French founded trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes in the Ohio River area. King William’s War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) were early clashes between British colonists and French in North America. Neither France nor Britain committed any troops to these as they didn’t see these colonies worth the expense. The real money was coming from the Caribbean at that point. Spain sided with France in these early wars. King William III of Prussia The War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739) was fought between the British and Spanish in the Caribbean and Georgia, where James Oglethorpe earned his reputation as a soldier. British captain Jenkins was captured by the Spanish and had his ear cut off and his captures sent him packing with the ear and threatened to do the same to his king. The War of Jenkin’s Ear merged with the larger War of Austrian Succession in Europe and was called King George’s War in America. France allied itself with Spain again. New England colonists invaded New France and took the French fort at Louisbourg (see map on pg 112) but the peace settlement gave it back to the French. Importance: American colonists resented politics in Europe dictating politics and life in America • American (British) colonists had been pushing into this area to expand their land holdings, especially the Virginia planters. • The French wanted it to link their Canadian land with that of the lower empire. • Control of the Ohio Valley meant control of all of North America. This became the region that England and France would fight over The French built Fort Duquesne at the site of present day Pittsburg, which is where the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River join to form the Ohio River. In 1754 the Governor of VA sent 21 year old George Washington and 150 VA militiamen to secure Virginia’s claim to this land. 1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British Fort Necessity * George Washington French Fort Duquesne * Delaware & Shawnee Indians His party and a group of Indians ambushed a French scouting party. The Indians killed the French commander, a number of French troops and took even more prisoner. Washington probably had little command over the situation and the French and Indian War had begun. Washington quickly built Fort Necessity and asked for reinforcements, which never came. The French did come with reinforcements, surrounded the fort and pounded it in a torrential downpour for 10 hours before Washington surrendered. The French allowed him and his men to march away. With the war underway, the British uprooted some 4,000 French Acadians in 1755 (because they had acquired the land in 1713 in an earlier squirmish) and deported them in Louisiana- the original Cajuns. The French and Indian War was the 4th Anglo-French colonial war and the only one which started in America, in 1754. It was an undeclared war for 2 years until it spread to all corners of the globe, but especially in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and the open seas. The French and Indian War is also known as the Seven Years’ War. In Europe it was mainly Britain and Prussia against France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. France spent most of its troops in Germany instead of America, where Frederick the Great earned his title fighting for the British. • The British bought the Iroquois loyalty against the French. • Seven of the 13 colonies sent representatives. • the long-range purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to achieve Colonial unity in a common defense against the French 1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA A Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French. The British sent General Braddock to capture Fort Duquesne. Braddock hacked a road through the wilderness, which wasted a lot of time, money, and resources. The French and Indians ambushed the British redcoats and the American militia and slaughtered them. George Washington was in charge of the militia and had 2 horses shot from under him and 4 bullets pierced his clothing, but he was one of the few who lived. After this defeat, the French and Indians ravaged the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina. The British invaded Canada in 1756. The British tried to attack a number of French forts in the wilderness all at the same time with small forces and failed at nearly every attempt instead of concentrating on the larger forts at Quebec and Montreal. William Pitt became Prime Minister in 1757 and changed the tactics of the war. He put the Caribbean on the back burner and focused on taking Canada with the capture of Quebec and Montreal. Pitt chose young and energetic generals instead of the old and cautious ones that favored European tactics that proved not to work in America. 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England * By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr. In 1758 the British took the Fort at Louisbourg. The British attacked Quebec under the dashing General James Wolfe who sent a detachment to scale the cliffs surrounding the city. The French and British duked it out on the Plains of Abraham outside of the city. Both Wolfe and the French commander were killed, but the British took Quebec in 1759. The British took Montreal in 1760. British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials Methods of Fighting: British • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or bayonet charge. tactics. Military • Col. militias served Organization: under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings. France ceded all of its land west of the Mississippi (Louisiana) to the Spanish, and lost almost all of it’s North American land claims, except for a couple of islands in the St. Lawrence and a few in the West Indies. The Treaty of Paris 1763 settled the French and Indian War. England becomes the dominant power in North America 20,000 American colonists fought for the British in the war. British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of the colonists (who's interests they were fighting to protect) During the war the British regular army showed contempt for the American militia as raw, and unrespectable. The British refused to recognize any American milita commission above the rank of captain, which was humiliating to Colonel George Washington. Many American shippers broke British blockades during the war and exported food to besieged French and Spanish islands in the Caribbean. Overall, the American colonies were not united in the French and Indian War and didn’t take up the cause for the British empire. American ambivalence during the French and Indian War was caused by: Geographical barriers like rivers, Conflicting religions, from Catholic to Quaker, Varied nationalities: German, English, Irish, Scots-Irish, etc Differing types of colonial governments Many boundary disputes, The resentment of crude backcountry settlers against the aristocratic bigwigs. However, soldiers and statesmen, brought together during the war found that they were all fellow Americans who generally spoke the same language and shared common ideals. With the French threat gone, Americans felt much more confident. Started idea of independence The Spanish were forced to give up Florida to Britain. Native Americans were no longer able to play off the Europeans against one another after 1763. Led by the Ottawa chief and a handful of French traders. They tried to drive the British out of the Ohio country. Overran all but 3 British posts and killed 2,000 soldiers and settlers. The British spread smallpox infected blankets to the Indians, which brought a truce. Pontiac died in battle with another Indian tribe in 1769. Pontiac’s rebellion convinced the British that they needed to spend more money and attention on stabilizing Indianwhite relations and keep the Indians subdued along the western frontier, they also wanted the colonists to pay for it. The Proclamation of 1763forbade settlement west of the Appalachians. The British intention was to work out Indian problems in the area fairly and prevent another Pontiac’s Rebellion. The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited colonial settlement west of the Application Mountains American’s saw the western land as their birthright and deeply resented (and ignored) the British proclamation. In the end, they defied the Proclamation and moved west anyway. Theories of Representation Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??