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Transcript
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Ming and Qing Dynasties
Ming Foreign Policy
 Attitudes toward trade – wanted to be selfsufficient; refused to rely on foreign trade
 The northern frontier – strengthened Great Wall
of China; chose frontier defense over trade and
sea travel
1
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Ming and Qing Dynasties
Founding the Qing Dynasty
 Nurhachi unified tribes into Manchu
 Adopted Chinese culture
 Kept Manchu people separate and distinct
from Chinese
2
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Ming and Qing Dynasties
Economy, Culture, and Society
 Economy – trade and manufacturing
specialization grew
 Popular culture and society – novels and plays in
everyday language; family was center of society
3
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 1:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Ming and Qing Dynasties
Decline of the Qing Dynasty
 Population growth
 Government inefficiency and increases in taxes
 White Lotus Rebellion
4
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
China and Europeans
The Portuguese
 Trade ties with China
 Jesuit missionaries helped emperors revise
calendar, gained great power with imperial court
 Qing rulers became suspicious, fearful of Jesuits’
intentions
5
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
China and Europeans
The British
 Free trade ideas – Great Britain abolished British East
India Company’s monopoly on trade with China
 The opium trade – Chinese demand for cotton didn’t
match British demand for tea; British India exported
opium to China, which caused trade imbalance
 The Opium War – Chinese tried to forcibly stop opium
trade; Hong Kong went to British rule
 More concessions – unequal treaties with France and
United States, foreign embassies in Beijing
6
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 2:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
China and Europeans
Rebellions
 Taiping Rebellion – caused terrible destruction
 Christian and Muslim teachings motivated
more revolts
7
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Tokugawa Shoguns in Japan
Founding the Tokugawa Shogunate
 Oda Nobunaga – conquests and alliances
 Toyotomi Hideyoshi – sword hunts kept peasants
from becoming warriors
 Tokugawa Ieyasa – crushed rivals
 Tokugawa rule – combination of feudalism and
central monarchy
8
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Tokugawa Shoguns in Japan
Foreign Contact
 The Portuguese in Japan – Christian missionaries,
Jesuits
 Closing the country – saw Christianity and Western
technology as threats to Tokugawa rule and to
Japanese traditions and values
9
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Tokugawa Shoguns in Japan
Life in Takugawa Japan
 Social classes – Confucian ideal; class was
determined by birth
 Change and culture – internal trade expanded,
artisans and merchants prospered, new forms of
art, literature, theater
10
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
HOLT
World History
Section 3:
THE HUMAN JOURNEY
The Tokugawa Shoguns in Japan
The End of Japan’s Isolation
 Matthew Perry
 Treaty of Kanagawa – similar treaties with Great
Britain, Netherlands, Russia
11
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON