Download Unit 13

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Diplomatic history of World War II wikipedia, lookup

Consequences of Nazism wikipedia, lookup

The War That Came Early wikipedia, lookup

Causes of World War II wikipedia, lookup

Allies of World War II wikipedia, lookup

European theatre of World War II wikipedia, lookup

End of World War II in Europe wikipedia, lookup

New Order (Nazism) wikipedia, lookup

Technology during World War II wikipedia, lookup

Naval history of World War II wikipedia, lookup

Historiography of the Battle of France wikipedia, lookup

Allied plans for German industry after World War II wikipedia, lookup

Invasion of Normandy wikipedia, lookup

Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II wikipedia, lookup

Operation Bodyguard wikipedia, lookup

Battle of the Mediterranean wikipedia, lookup

Military history of Greece during World War II wikipedia, lookup

Écouché in the Second World War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Hürtgen Forest wikipedia, lookup

Wehrmacht forces for the Ardennes Offensive wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
GC unit 11
Part 1
World War II
The US position
 Still viewed all of this as a “European problem”
– Isolationism
– The Neutrality Acts
– Eventually these were relaxed and we began to aid the
allies
 Lend lease Act
 Destroyers for naval bases
– July 1941 Japanese occupy Indo-China at the expense of the
French (US leads a world wide oil embargo and sent aid to the
Chinese)
 Pearl Harbor December 7th 1941
Hitler’s Conquests in Europe
 Blitzkrieg (Panzer divisions of 300 tanks)
– Infantry and air support
 April 1940 he attacked Denmark and Norway
 Then the Netherlands (2 days) and Belgium (2
weeks)
 Hitler avoided the Maginot Line by invading
France through Luxembourg on June 10th 1940
– The Miracle of Dunkirk: 300,000 saved but all
equipment was lost (DeGaulle and the Free French)
– Germans reach Paris on June 14th 1940 and set up
the Vichy government under Henri Petain
The Battle of Britain
 From August of 1940 until March of 1941 Hitler
bombed England to soften them up for
invasion (15,000 killed in London in 2 months)
– British bomb Berlin and caused the Luftwaffe to
shift focus to London
– Hitler shifts focus to London (allows British industry
to produce)
– RAF used radar and US help to fight off the attacks
– Churchill took power in May of 1940 (good
relationship with FDR and the US)
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC
 WHEN? 1942-43
 WHERE? N. ATLANTIC SEA LANES
 WHO?
– GERMAN U-BOAT FORCE (WOLFPACKS)
– U.S. / BRITISH NAVIES & MERCHANT SHIPS
 WHAT?
– GERMANS ATTEMPT TO CUT OFF FLOW OF SUPPLIES
FROM U.S. TO BRITIAN
– ATTACKS START CLOSE TO U.S. SHORE
– COMBAT EVENTAULLY MOVES FURTHER INTO THE
ATLANTIC
– U.S. USES SONAR & RADAR TO HINDER GERMANS
 RESULTS?
– HEAVY LOSSES ON BOTH SIDES
– BY MID-1943, ALLIES HAVE WON CONTROL OF THE
ATLANTIC
WW II GERMAN U-BOAT
OPERATION BARBAROSSA
THE EASTERN FRONT
 June 22, 1941:
– Operation Barbarossa / Germany invades Russia
– Why?
 Lebensraum: Definition – Living Space for Germans
 Nazi Racial Theories
– Slavic (Russians, Poles, etc.) considered inferior to Germans
– Russia’s Jews needed to be eliminated
– Wanted to force GB to sign a treaty by eliminating an important
potential ally
Resources: Land, Food, Oil
 Communist “threat” / desire to destroy “Bolshevism”
 Hitler’s mistrust of Stalin
STALINGRAD
 When? October 1942 February of 1943
 Where? Stalingrad (Southern Russia)
 Why?
– German attempt to capture / occupy oil fields in S.
Russia
– Then Germans can control important Volga River
supply route
 What happens?
–
–
–
–
–
Aug.-Oct.: German 6th Army seizes Stalingrad
Oct.-Nov.: Russians surround / cut off Germans
Nov.-Feb.: German Army starved / casualties high
Feb: German 6th Army surrenders 91,000 prisoners
***Russian casualties (military & civilian):
1,250,000 (more than US in the entire war)
 STALINGRAD: Turning point in European
Theatre
THE NORTH AFRICAN &
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN
 WHEN? Nov.’42-1944
 WHO? ALLIES:
– U.S. FORCES: DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
– BRITISH: BERNARD MONTGOMERY
– GERMAN AFRIKA KORPS: ERWIN ROMMEL
 ***ROMMEL: “THE DESERT FOX”
 WHY IMPORTANT?
– CONTROL OF MEDITERRANEAN SEA
– ALLIES THOUGHT IT WAS “SOFT UNDERBELLY” OF EUROPE
 BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN:
– TURNING POINT IN NORTH AFRICA
– BRITISH VICTORY
 RESULTS?
– ALLIES FORCE AXIS TO USE UP VALUABLE RESOURCES
– MUSSOLINI LOSES POWER IN ITALY ; LATER KILLED
– ALLIES CONTROL MEDITERRANEAN
Italy Surrenders
 July 1943 allies invaded Sicily to open a
second front in Europe
– Mussolini had been deposed and arrested in the
Spring of 1943
– Italians surrender to British and US not USSR
– Germans divert troops to bail out Italy, rescue
Mussolini and restore him as the leader in
German controlled N. Italy
OPERATION OVERLORD
 JUNE 6, 1944
 GOAL:
– ALLIED INVASION OF NORTHERN EUROPE
– MASSIVE AMPHIBIOUS & AIRBORNE INVASION
– TO ESTABLISH AN ALLIED ”BEACHHEAD” IN N. FRANCE
 WHO? ALLIES (156,000 TROOPS, 4,000 LANDING CRAFT, 6000
SHIPS, 11,000 PLANES)
– U.S.:
 ARMY AIRBORNE, AIR CORPS, INFANTRY, RANGERS
 U.S. NAVY, U.S. COAST GUARD
– BRITS.:
 ARIBORNE, R.A.F., INFANTRY
 NAVY
– CANADIANS: INFANTRY
– FREE FRENCH: INFANTRY, NAVY
 WHERE? NORMANDY BEACHES, FRANCE
 GERMANS EXPECTED ATTACK TO ARRIVE IN DIFFERENT
PART OF FRANCE
 WHY? GEORGE S. PATTON USED AS “DECOY”
 HITLER WOULD NOT ALLOW REINFORCEMENTS MOVED TO
NORMANDY
OPERATION OVERLORD
THE FALL OF GERMANY
 LATE 1944: GERMANY IS ON VERGE OF
DEFEAT
 DEC., 1944: GERMANS TRY ONE LAST
GAMBLE TO WIN WAR:
– ARMORED / INFANTRY OFFENSIVE IN WEST
– BATTLE OF THE BULGE
– GERMANS LOSE
 CAN’T REPLACE LOSSES
 120,000 KIA/MIA, 600 TANKS, 1600 PLANES
 APRIL, 1945: SOVIETS SEIGE BERLIN
 BATTLE OF BERLIN:
– HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE
– UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER
– THIRD REICH HAS ENDED
 MAY 8, 1945: V-E DAY
War in the Pacific
 December 7th 1941 Pearl Harbor US declares
war on Japan
– Japan scores early victories until the Battle of Coral
Sea (1st Naval battle where ships did not see each
other)
– Turning point was Battle of Midway June 6th 1942
 US destroyed 4 Japanese Carriers (Chester Nimitz)
– Island Hopping
– Douglas MacArthur and the Philippines
– Harry Truman (The Manhattan Project)
 Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Aug 1945)
 V-J Day Aug 15th 1945