Ending WWII I. Preparation of Peace A. Yalta Conference- February 1945 1. Churchill, Stalin, and FDR a. Met in Soviet Union because Stalin was scared to fly or leave the protection of the USSR B. U.N. (United Nations) was created as a new international peace keeping body. 1. Based on the Atlantic Charter 2. Stalin agreed to allow democratic election in Soviet occupied territories C. San Francisco- April 1945 1.50 nations meet to create the U.N. 2.Their charter created the “General Assembly” a. Town meeting of the world 3. Security council held all the power a. 11 members all 5 wartime allies b. Any member had the right to veto actions of the council c. 6 other seats were voted in by the G.A. D. F.D.R. dies on April 12th 1945. E. July 1945- Potsdam Conference, Germany 1. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin organize plans for: a. Disarming Germany b. Eliminating the Nazi regime c. Creates new questions that lead to the origins of the Cold War II. The Nuremberg War Trials A. 4 sections 1.Germany was divided into 4 subsections governed by the Big 3 and France B. Nazi officials were put on trial in Nuremberg, Germany 1. On trial for: a. Crimes against humanity b. Crimes against the peace c. War crimes 2. 12 of 22 were sentenced to death a. First time in history a nations leaders were held responsible for their actions during wartime III. Occupation of Japan A. On September 2, 1945 Japan formally surrenders on the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay. B. Japan was occupied by Gen. MacArthur 1. 1,100 Japanese Militarists including Tojo were put on trial. 2. Seven were put to death for atrocities against civilians and or prisoners of war. C. MacArthur occupied Japan for six years. 1. Introduced free market practices 2. Created a new Constitution ~ To this day it is still called the MacArthur Constitution 3. Women’s rights and Basic Freedoms were granted ** Now that the U.S. has taken care of Asia and Europe, the focus can return to the home front.