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World War II
Versailles, June 1919
From left to right:
Prime Minister David
Lloyd George of Great
Prime Minister
Vittorio Orlando of
Prime Minister
Georges Clemenceau
of France
President Woodrow
Wilson of the United
The Versailles
War guilt
League of Nations
The Versailles Treaty
• German army
• Germany barred
from having
tanks, an air
force, or
• Occupied DMZ
west of the
Map showing German territory lost and the Rhineland DMZ
The League of Nations
Although President
Wilson was the driving
force behind the
creation of the League
of Nations, the United
States did not join it.
Rise of the Nazis
• Germany’s
economic woes
• Political instability
• Fascism
• National Socialist
German Workers’
Adolf Hitler
The Nazis
promoted a view of
Germany as
surrounded by
enemies and
threatened on all
The Nazis Gain Power
Hitler sworn in as
Chancellor, 1933
The Invasion of Manchuria
and the “Rape of Nanking”
Dictator Benito Mussolini addresses his followers
The Invasion of Ethiopia
Emperor Hailie Selassie of Ethiopia
Germany Rearms
German troops march back into the Rhineland, 1936
Building an Axis
Signing of Tripartite pact to form the
Axis Alliance
Hitler and Mussolini
Rome-Berlin Axis
The Spanish Civil War
Generals Francisco Franco and Emilio Moré, leaders of the coup
Spanish Civil War (continued)
Italian soldiers in Spain
New Weapons
and Tactics
Hitler tests weapons
in Spanish Civil War
The Destruction of Guernica
Germany Takes Austria
Nazi troops enter Austria
The Munich Conference
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
(left) and Hitler confer at the Munich
A weeping Czech woman reluctantly
salutes Nazi soldiers as they march
into the Sudetenland
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
German Advances, 1939
American Foreign
Policy, 1932–1941
Neutrality Acts
The Atlantic Charter
Churchill and FDR at sea during
the Atlantic Charter talks
Germany Takes France
• France surrenders, 1940
• The French Resistance
A Frenchman weeps as German troops
march into Paris
The Battle of Britain
A London air raid shelter
The Battle of Britain (continued)
Germany Invades Russia
Japanese Aggression
General Hideki Tojo
Locations of Japanese forces in November 1941
Pearl Harbor
The U.S. Declares War
FDR signs the declaration of war against Japan
The Battle of Midway
Yorktown receives
a direct hit during
the battle of
The Battle of Stalingrad
North Africa
Italy Surrenders
Allies enter Rome
The D-Day Invasion
U.S. troops wade ashore at Normandy
The Liberation of Paris
Paris, 1944
The Battle of the Bulge
An American soldier guards German
troops captured during the Battle of
the Bulge
U.S. troops advance through the
snow toward the town of St. Vith,
The Firebombing of Dresden
Germany Surrenders
V-E Day
The Pacific War, 1944–1945
U.S. soldiers raise the American flag after capturing Iwo Jima
Birth of the Atomic Bomb
Preparing the atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima
Japan Surrenders
Total War
• Concept of “total
• Mobilizing the
• Rationing
• Women in the work
• Propaganda
• Military tactics
Two old women stand amidst the ruins of
an almshouse in Berkshire, England
Mobilizing the Economy
A worker inspects 1000-pound bomb cases
Rationing and
Victory Gardens
• Gasoline, coffee, sugar, meat, other goods are rationed
• “Victory Gardens” and other measures
Women in the Work Force
Journalists interview
Tokyo Rose
Military Tactics
Family in the wreckage of their Liverpool home
Injured survivors of the Nagasaki blast
Civilian Deaths
The Holocaust
The Nuremberg Military Tribunal
The Yalta Conference
The “Big Three” at Yalta
The Potsdam Conference
Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam
within postwar
U.S. Occupation of Japan
MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
The Marshall Plan
• Europe’s economy was in shambles after World War II
• Marshall proposed aid to “all European countries who needed
• Plan also worked to keep communism from spreading to
western Europe
The United Nations
• International peacekeeping
• FDR was the “principal
architect” of the UN
• Goals
• Successes and failures
The Postwar World Order