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Classifying
Organisms
Section 2
Why Classify?
Classification: The process of grouping things based
on their similarities (things that they may have in
common)
• To help us understand and makes it easier to
study the world’s vast array of living things
• Over 1.8 million known organisms
• Once classified, a scientist knows
a lot about that organism
• i.e. parrot
Linnaean System
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Swedish naturalist developed a system of
classification
called taxonomy
 Major
contribution
was the creation
naming
system
called
binomial
1735 published Systema naturae, first
nomenclature
that his
indicates
publication to present
idea of classifying
organisms based
observable
features
organism’s
genusonand
species
of
Theory of Evolution
Charles Darwin (1809- 1882)
1831-1836 Sailed around the world as a
naturalist
aboard the HMS
 Major
contribution
wasBeagle
the theory
of
evolution
whichOnstated
that
specieshis
1859 Published
the Origin
of Species,
theory
natural selection
cancomplete
change
overof time
Binomial
Nomenclature
The Naming Game
•
•
•
•
Genus and species
The first word in an organism’s scientific name
is its Genus
Genus- classification grouping that contains
similar, closely related organisms.
The second word describes a distinctive
feature
Together, the two words indicate a unique
species.
Binomial Nomenclature
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scientific name
Written in Italics
First word is the Genus and is Capitalized
Second word is the species
Always written in Latin
Marmota monax
Genus
Species; specific characteristic
Modern System of Classification
• The classifying of organisms into eight levels:
Domain, Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family,
Genus, and Species
• Scientific name is based on binomial
nomenclature
• Species with similar evolutionary histories are
classified more closely together.
Question
What is the scientific study of how
living things are classified called?
TAXONOMY
Question
How is a scientific name written
In Italics
LEVELS OF
CLASSIFICATION
• Eight Levels of Classification
• Organisms are grouped by their shared
characteristics
• First an organism is placed in a broad group,
which in turn is divided into more specific
groups
Classifying Living Things
Compare the illustrations below. What
similarities do you see among the limbs? Can
you guess which animal each set of bones
belongs to?
Darling
DOMAIN
King
KINGDOM
Phillip
PHYLUM
Came
CLASS
Over
ORDER
For
FAMILY
Good
GENUS
Spaghetti
SPECIES
THREE DOMAINS of
LIFE
•
Domain Bacteria
•
Domain Archaea
•Domain Eukarya
Domain Bacteria
• Members are prokaryotes
• Are unicellular
• Prokaryotes genetic material is not contained
in a nucleus
• Some are autotrophs while other are
heterotrophs
Domain Archaea
• Meaning Ancient; found in the most extreme
environment(hotsprings, glaciers..)
• Like bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes
• autotrophs and heterotrophs
• Own domain because have their own chemical
makeup.
Domain Eukarya
• Eukaryotes: organisms with cells that contain
nuclei
• Organism in this domain are classified in one
of four kingdoms
– Protists
– Fungi
– Plants
– Animals
KINGDOMS
4 KINGDOMS
–ANIMALIA (Animal)
– PLANTE (Plant)
– FUNGI (Fungus)
– PROTISTA (Protista)
PROTISTA (Protist)
• Odds and End Kingdom
• Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
• Most unicellular, but like
seaweed are large multicellular
organisms
FUNGI (Fungus)
• All are multicellular
eukaryotes
• Heterotrophs
• Most absorb nutrients from
dead or decaying organisms
PLANTE (Plant)
• All are multicellular
eukaryotes
• Autotrophs
ANIMALIA (Animal)
• All are multicellular
eukaryotes
• Heterotrophs
Skill Activity
• Look carefully at the organisms pictured
together at the kingdom level. Make a list of the
characteristics that the organisms share.
• Now make two more lists of shared
characteristics- one for the organisms at the
class level and the other for those at the genus
level.
• How does the number of shared characteristics
on the list change at each level?