Classifying Organisms Section 2 Why Classify? Classification: The process of grouping things based on their similarities (things that they may have in common) • To help us understand and makes it easier to study the world’s vast array of living things • Over 1.8 million known organisms • Once classified, a scientist knows a lot about that organism • i.e. parrot Linnaean System Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist developed a system of classification called taxonomy Major contribution was the creation naming system called binomial 1735 published Systema naturae, first nomenclature that his indicates publication to present idea of classifying organisms based observable features organism’s genusonand species of Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin (1809- 1882) 1831-1836 Sailed around the world as a naturalist aboard the HMS Major contribution wasBeagle the theory of evolution whichOnstated that specieshis 1859 Published the Origin of Species, theory natural selection cancomplete change overof time Binomial Nomenclature The Naming Game • • • • Genus and species The first word in an organism’s scientific name is its Genus Genus- classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms. The second word describes a distinctive feature Together, the two words indicate a unique species. Binomial Nomenclature • • • • • • Scientific name Written in Italics First word is the Genus and is Capitalized Second word is the species Always written in Latin Marmota monax Genus Species; specific characteristic Modern System of Classification • The classifying of organisms into eight levels: Domain, Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species • Scientific name is based on binomial nomenclature • Species with similar evolutionary histories are classified more closely together. Question What is the scientific study of how living things are classified called? TAXONOMY Question How is a scientific name written In Italics LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION • Eight Levels of Classification • Organisms are grouped by their shared characteristics • First an organism is placed in a broad group, which in turn is divided into more specific groups Classifying Living Things Compare the illustrations below. What similarities do you see among the limbs? Can you guess which animal each set of bones belongs to? Darling DOMAIN King KINGDOM Phillip PHYLUM Came CLASS Over ORDER For FAMILY Good GENUS Spaghetti SPECIES THREE DOMAINS of LIFE • Domain Bacteria • Domain Archaea •Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria • Members are prokaryotes • Are unicellular • Prokaryotes genetic material is not contained in a nucleus • Some are autotrophs while other are heterotrophs Domain Archaea • Meaning Ancient; found in the most extreme environment(hotsprings, glaciers..) • Like bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes • autotrophs and heterotrophs • Own domain because have their own chemical makeup. Domain Eukarya • Eukaryotes: organisms with cells that contain nuclei • Organism in this domain are classified in one of four kingdoms – Protists – Fungi – Plants – Animals KINGDOMS 4 KINGDOMS –ANIMALIA (Animal) – PLANTE (Plant) – FUNGI (Fungus) – PROTISTA (Protista) PROTISTA (Protist) • Odds and End Kingdom • Autotrophs & Heterotrophs • Most unicellular, but like seaweed are large multicellular organisms FUNGI (Fungus) • All are multicellular eukaryotes • Heterotrophs • Most absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organisms PLANTE (Plant) • All are multicellular eukaryotes • Autotrophs ANIMALIA (Animal) • All are multicellular eukaryotes • Heterotrophs Skill Activity • Look carefully at the organisms pictured together at the kingdom level. Make a list of the characteristics that the organisms share. • Now make two more lists of shared characteristics- one for the organisms at the class level and the other for those at the genus level. • How does the number of shared characteristics on the list change at each level?