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Transcript
Management of the LIGO Project
Gary Sanders
California Institute of Technology
Presented to the Committee on Programs
and Plans of the National Science Board
August 9, 2001
LIGO-G010262-00-M
This Presentation




Introduction to LIGO
How we have managed LIGO
How NSF has managed LIGO
Status of LIGO today
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2
Interferometers as Detectors
of Gravitational Waves
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Detection of Gravitational Waves by
Interferometry
suspended test masses
LIGO (4 km), stretch (squash) = 10-18 m will be
detected at frequencies of 10 Hz to 104 Hz. It can
detect waves from a distance of 600 106 light
years
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4
LIGO Scope and Costs

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave
Observatory (LIGO) is:
»
»
»
»

a joint project of Caltech and MIT
construct and operate two observatories with 4 km interferometers
detect gravitational waves
initiate ground-based gravitational wave astronomy
LIGO has been supported through the NSF Division
of Physics/Gravity Program
» Construction cost $292 million (Major Research Equipment + R&D)
» Commissioning, early operations and R&D cost $79 million
» This funding covers 1994 - 2001
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Two Observatories Baseline
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Long
6
LIGO Observatories
LIGO (Washington)
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LIGO (Louisiana)
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LIGO Vacuum System
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LIGO 4 km Beam Tubes
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Optics Installation
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LIGO Schedule
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003+
Construction Underway (mostly civil)
Facility Construction (vacuum system)
Interferometer Construction (complete facilities)
Construction Complete (interferometers in vacuum)
Detector Installation (commissioning subsystems)
Commission Interferometers (first coincidences)
Sensitivity studies (initiate LIGO I Science Run)
LIGO I data run (one year integrated data at h ~ 10-21)
2006+
Begin ‘advanced’ LIGO installation
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11
Construction Cost Schedule
Performance
300
250
98% complete
$ Millions
200
150
Original Plan - $250M
Current Plan - $290M
100
Cooperative Agreement - $292M
Earned Value
Performance - $281M
50
Actuals Costs - $278M
01-4
01-2
00-4
00-2
99-4
99-2
98-4
98-2
97-4
97-2
96-4
96-2
95-4
95-2
0
LIGO Quarter
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12
Features of the LIGO Construction
Project



University (Caltech+MIT) managed, no national
laboratory
Two green field sites
Carried out as two major subprojects
» 2/3 of the project constructs buildings, clean labs, vacuum system
designed for ultimate terrestrial detectors
» 1/3 of project constructs initial detectors

NSF funding provided when scheduled, leading to a
technically limited project
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Features of the LIGO Construction
Project

Organized and executed like a bridge building project
» Product oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
» Scope and technical configuration defined and controlled
» Cost and schedule integrated into a performance measurement baseline
with earned value analysis
» Contingency funds managed centrally through a Change Control Board
» Organization matches WBS
– Subsystem managers responsible to deliver products
» Subcontractors managed rigorously
» Scientists fully integrated and aware of Voltaire’s maxim “le mieux est
l'ennemi du bien”
– Scientists did not destabilize project but were also the source for project repair
and workaround

Big Science culture new to NSF and to Caltech/MIT scientists
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LIGO Project Work Breakdown
and Organization
Work Breakdown Structure
LIGO Project
Facilities
Civil Facilities
Vacuum Equipment
Beam Tube
Beam Tube Enclosure
Detector
Lasers/Optics
Isolation/Suspension
Controls
Env. Monitor
R&D
Project Management
40 Meter Test
Phase Noise Test
Campus Research
.
.
Project Management
Cost/Schedule
System Engineering
QA/ES&H
Document Control
Computing
LIGO Project Organization
LIGO PI and PM
Facilities
Civil Facilities
Vacuum Equipment
Beam Tube
Beam Tube Enclosure
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Detector
Lasers/Optics
Isolation/Suspension
Controls
Env. Monitor
.
.
R&D
40 Meter Test
Phase Noise Test
Campus Research
Project Management
Project Management
Cost/Schedule
System Engineering
QA/ES&H
Document Control
Computing
15
LIGO Laboratory Organization
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Post Construction


Operating as a scientific program has been initiated
Organized LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC)
» a ~30 institution, ~300 scientist international collaboration to carry
out the
– observational science and
– advanced R&D
» LSC includes LIGO Laboratory scientific staff
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What NSF Has Done





Through the Gravity Program, NSF has created an oversight
function for LIGO
Cooperative Agreement and Project Management Plan created
the formal framework
A dedicated program officer led the oversight and structured
NSF review
Semiannual project reviews during construction used a
standing committee with slowly varying membership to provide
review of progress
Program officer employed an internal multidisciplinary team to
coordinate NSF reviews and approvals with periodic meetings
» Gravity program, grants and agreements, legal, public affairs, government
affairs, property management, budget,…
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LIGO “First Lock”
Composite Video
2
min
Y Arm
Laser
X Arm
signal
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LIGO Status






Hanford 2 kilometer interferometer commissioned in
final optical configuration
Livingston 4 kilometer interferometer commissioning
in recombined configuration
Hanford 4 kilometer interferometer laser and mode
cleaner commissioned with arms about to be
illuminated
Engineering runs and mock data challenges carried
out
Coincidence studies later this year
Scientific running commences in 2002
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