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Transcript
```Light, Mirrors and
Telescopes
Rajesh Gupta
University of California, San Diego.
Mr. Smith’s Class
We see things because they
reflect light into our eyes:
Homework
2
We hear things when they
vibrate
If something vibrates with a very quickly we say it has a
_____ pitch.
If something vibrates with a vibrates slowly we say it has a
____ pitch.
Words – low, high
3
How do we see things?
4
Indoors and outdoors
5
We make or see or hear waves
6
Drawing sounds…
This sound wave has a
_____ frequency:
This sound wave has a
___ _frequency:
7
Waves can be small or large
8
Waves can be slow or fast
Light travels VERY FAST – around
300,000 kilometres per second.
At this speed it can
go around the world 8
times in one second.
9
Small wave to see small things
 But we can use big waves to see large
things
10
The Universe is a VERY Big Place
 1,000,000,000,000 galaxies
 100,000,000,000 - 1,000,000,000,000
stars in a galaxy
kilometers

Light takes 13 billion years to travel
11
We can use different waves to
see the universe
12
We can use different waves to
see the universe
13
We can use different waves to
see the universe
14
We can use different waves to
see the universe
15
We can use different waves to
see the universe
16
17
We can use light
Light travels in straight lines:
Laser
18
Light reflects
Reflected ray
Incident ray
Mirror
19
Using mirrors
Two examples:
1) A periscope
20
Clear vs. Diffuse Reflection
Smooth, shiny surfaces
have a clear reflection:
Rough, dull surfaces have
a diffuse reflection.
Diffuse reflection is when
light is scattered in
different directions
21
Mirrors can be concave or
convex
22
Convex Mirrors
23
Concave Mirrors
Where have you seen it?
24
Concave Mirrors and Far
Objects
25
Refraction is bending of light
26
27
Lenses use refraction to form
images
28
Telescopes and Microscopes
29
Telescopes
 Optical Telescopes use light to see
things


Reflecting telescopes use mirrors
Refraction telescopes use lenses
 Bigger telescopes collect more light


See more things, see farther
If you double the area of the mirror,
you collect four times as much light
to see things


Can observe at night, through clouds,
rains
Larger waves, so telescopes can be
bigger
30
Refractors (lens based) are
hard to make very large
Yerkes Observatory
40 Inch refractor (1897)
31
Reflecting Telescopes
32
Observatories
• 100 in. (2.5 m) Hooker,
Mount Wilson. Largest
1917-1948. (photo: Mount Wilson)
• 200 in. (5 m) Hale,
Mount Palomar. Largest
1948-1974. (photo: Alain Maury)
• BTA-6 (6 m), Mount
Pashtoukov. Largest 19741993. (photo: SAO-RAS)
• Keck I & II (9.8 m), Mauna
Kea. Largest 1993(photo: WM Keck Observatory)
Observatories
high locations and
dry areas

Kitt Peak (Arizona),
Mauna Kea (Hawaii),
Andes Mnts (Chile)
34
Kitt Peak Observatories
24 Telescopes
35
CTIO (Chile) above
Siding Springs (Australia)
right
36
Mauna Kea Observatories 12 telescopes of various sizes
37
The Keck Telescopes
Each is 10 meters across
38
Subaru Telescope - 8.3 meters
39
The Very Large
Telescope
(VLT)
4 telescopes each with
8 m mirrors - acts like
a 16 m telescope
40
The Overwhelmingly
Large Telescope OWL
100 meters across
Is there no limit?!?!?!?!?
41
Using Other Waves
42
design as visible light
telescope - a parabolic
surface
43
Largest Single Dish
305 m across
44
Puerto Rico
45
The Very Large Array
one
of a Supernova
remnant
46
West Virginia
47
48
GMRT: Giant Metrewave
49
Space Telescopes
X-Ray
Chandra Telescope
Infrared
Spitzer Space Telescope
Visible - Ultraviolet
Hubble Space Telescope
50
Hubble Space Telescope
51
52
Acknowledgements

Material collected from diverse and many sources, including

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http://observe.phy.sfasu.edu/courses/phy410/lectures410/Movies/sound/
http://science.howstuffworks.com/light14.htm
http://www.kidskonnect.com/LightSound/LightSoundHome.html
The Soundry: How We Perceive Sound: The Ear
The Science Spot: Physics - Light & Sound
What are waves?, NASA
Physics Zone: Lessons on Waves, Light, and Sound
http://www2.biglobe.ne.jp/~norimari/science/JavaEd/e-wave6.html
Waves, Light and Sound Review

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

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/reviews/63reviews/u11and12/u1112rev.html
http://online.physics.uiuc.edu/courses/phys150/fall03/slides/lect11.pdf
P100_Class10_ICQ.pdf (application/pdf Object)
http://www.astro.ubc.ca/people/newbury/astro311/notes/060925h.pdf
Waves&Superposition.pdf (application/pdf Object)
http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~stalder/astro110/lectures/lecture9.pdf
http://www.colloid.nl/Education/Nat1chem/waves-lectures-Nat-Chem-2006.pdf
The educational encyclopedia, physics, optics and color
The Physics Classroom
http://faculty.salisbury.edu/~jwhoward/astro108/html/present.htm