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Science avec KMOS
VLT-2ème génération
•
Istituto de Astrofisica, Milano, Italy: D. Maccagni (PI), B. Garilli, A. Iovino, G.
Bertin, ...
LAM, Marseille, France: O. Le Fevre, A. Mazure, B. Millard, L. Tresse, E. Prieto,...
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de l'OMP, Toulouse, France: T. Contini, R. Pello, J.P.
Picat, ...
IAP: Y. Mellier, ...
IRA Bologna, Italy: J. Vettolani, ...
ESO, Santiago, Chile: J. G. Cuby, ...
IoA, Cambridge, UK: M. Pettini, ...
O. De Geneve, Suisse: D. Schaerer, ...
University of Durham, UK: J. Allington-Smith, ...
UCM: J. Gallego, ...
SCIENCE CORE GROUP en cours de constitution ....
24/05/2017
1
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Motivation:
Scientific Drivers and technical considerations aiming to support the
development of a cryogenic multi-object spectrograph for the future 2nd
generation of instruments for the VLT ( ~2007/8).
 after
ISAAC : field & wavelength coverage, MOS capability
NIRMOS : K band, spectral resolution
EMIR : Multi-IFU capability
to start science production before NGST
to reach maximum efficiency during the early epoch of NGST
precursor of future IR instruments for ~20-100 m class
telescopes, and a test bench for future Surveys.
24/05/2017
2
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Spectral Range
1 – 2.4 m
Overall Transmission
>70%
Field of View
8’x8’ or 10’x10’; 2’x8’(10’) in
multi-IFU mode
Spectral Resolution
5000 (JH); 3000 (K)
Image Quality
0.1 arcsec
Sampling
0.11” or 0.15”
Multiplexing
>60 (MOS); 24 (IFS)
KMOS-2
Main Characteristics
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Telescope
24
steering
mirrors
Mask Exchange unit
24 Slicer units
24 relay optics
MAIN OPTICAL CONCEPTS
FOV
8’x8’
10’x10’
Sampling
0.11”
0.15”
Detector
4kx4k
4kx4k
R
3000
3000
Multi-IFU
FOV
2’x8’
2’x10’
Individual
Field
1’x0.6’
1’x0.8’
Ind. IFU
FOV
1.5”x1.5”
1.8”x1.8”
Number of
IFUs
24
24
Mirror mode switch
Collimator
Grating/mirror
Exchange mech.
Camera
Filter wheel
detector
24/05/2017
4
Scientific drivers
extragalactic
astronomy and cosmology
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Formation and
Evolution of
galaxies
24/05/2017
+

Supernovae at different
redshifts

IR stellar features in Local
Galaxies

Clusters of galaxies at very
high-z (z S1)

AGNs

Spectroscopic near-IR
follow-up of Wide-field, X
and radio surveys
5
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
ClickKMOS/VLT Science : z >
2 galaxiesto add title
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
ClickKMOS/VLT Science : z > 2
galaxiesto add title
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
The number of
galaxies in the
field of view of
KMOS is ~105 per
square degree, or
a few thousand in
a 10x10 arcmin²
field, to K~22 (see
Figure 1). At these
magnitudes ~10%
of galaxies should
be at redshifts z>2.
McCracken 2002
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Pettini et al. (01):
~20 LBGs available
NIR spectra with
ISAAC/VLT and
NIRSPEC/KeckII
13/15 LBGs show e-lines
t_exposure~10**4 sec
K' (Vega)~ 20.5 - 21.5
Pettini et al. (01)
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Constraining the
formation epoch and the
properties of the first
sources
Cosmological importance:
re-ionisation epoch ? Sources (QSO,
stars) ?
nature of background radiation (UV
ionising bg, cosmic IR bg) ? (Bechtold
1994, Miralda-Escude & Ostriker 1990,
Haiman & Loeb 1997, Madau et al.
1999, Gnedin 2000, Tumlison & Shull
2000, Steidel et al. 2001, ... etc.)
Soon detectable?
NGST  ground-based
(see Haiman & Loeb 1997, Oh 1999,
Tumlinson et al. 2001, Bromm et al.
2001, ...)
Constraining the formation epoch and the properties of the
first sources
Key properties of Pop III stars / populations
Initial mass function (IMF):
Existence of very massive
stars: up to ~ 1000 MM ?!
(Abel et al. 1998, Uehara et al.
1996, Nakamura & Umemura
1999, 2001, Bromm etal. 1999)
bimodal IMF or NO low mass
stars ?! (Nakamura &
Umemura 1999, 2001, Bromm
et al. 1999)
Key properties of Pop III stars / populations
Nebular continuous emission
.... 1
... dominates the ZAMS
spectrum at l  1400 A
+Strong HeII lines: HeII
l1640, HeII l3203,HeII
l4686, ...
Stellar SED
Schaerer 2001
>> UNIQUE
FEATURES OF
POPIII
STARBURSTS<<
Ultra-deep
near-IR
photometry
J-H
Photo-z Identification of z>>6 sources
H-K
ClickKMOS Simulations to add title
J
10^7 MM stellar halo
Salpeter IMF: 1-500 MM
t(exposure)=10^5 sec
HeII 1640
H
K
H band:
Detection of Pop III sources with EMIR/GTC and KMOS/VLT
Already "hidden" in Ly-alpha surveys ??
(Tumlinson et al. 2001, Malhotra & Rhoads 2001)
flux (HeII 1640)
SFR=200 Msun/yr
(IMF 1-100 Msun)
SFR= 5
(IMF 50-500 Msun)
redshift
Follow-up spectroscopy
But: distinction PopIII – QSO ? --> line profiles
metal free objects at z <~ 5 expected ?
Simulations of primordial galaxy populations
FOV 4' * 4'
HeII 1640
Oh, Haiman, Rees (2000)
Ciardi, Ferrara, Governato, Jenkins (2000)
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
AGN studies: the most important lines
IMAGING
MULTI-SLIT SPECTROSCOPY
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY
Science Goals
Field
(sq.
deg)
Evolution of the physical properties
of galaxies at z>2
Nobjects
Limiting magnitude
(or line flux)
N x 104
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.3 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
~500 to
N x 104
e-line ~ n x10-18
erg/s/cm
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.7 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
N x 104
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.3 to 2.5
-
~100
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.3 to 2.5
IFU or multiIFU
1
Constraining the formation epoch
and the properties of the first
sources
1
LSS at z > 1
1
Clusters of galaxies at very high
resdhift (z > 1)
1
R
Wavelengt
h coverage
(m)
IFU?
Supernovae at different redshifts
~2 to 5
~1000
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.5 to 2.5
-
IR stellar and ISM features in
local galaxies
~2 to 5
~100
K=19 (spec)
R~5000
1 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
Evolution of quasar/AGN
1
1000
K=21 (spec)
R~5000
0.3 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
Spectroscopic NIR follow-up of
wide-field multi-wavelength
surveys
~4
N x 104
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~3000 (K)
to R~5000
(JH)
0.3 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
Nx1
~100
K=21 (spec) K=23
(phot)
R~5000
0.3 to 2.5
Multi-IFU
24/05/2017
Galactic stellar studies
19