Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript

Math II UNIT QUESTION: Can real world data be modeled by algebraic functions? Standard: MM2D1, D2 Today’s Question: How is a normal distribution used to curve test scores? Standard: MM2D1d The Normal Distribution Section 7.4 The normal distribution and standard deviations Suppose we measured the right foot length of 30 teachers and graphed the results. Assume the first person had a 10 inch foot. We could create a bar graph and plot that person on the graph. Number of People with that Shoe Size If our second subject had a 9 inch foot, we would add her to the graph. As we continued to plot foot lengths, a 8 pattern would begin to emerge. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Length of Right Foot Number of People with that Shoe Size Notice how there are more people (n=6) with a 10 inch right foot than any other length. Notice also how as the length becomes larger or smaller, there are fewer and fewer people with that measurement. This is a characteristics of many variables that we measure. There is a tendency to have most measurements in the middle, and fewer as we approach the high and low extremes. If we were to connect the top of each bar, we 8 would create a frequency polygon. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Length of Right Foot Number of People with that Shoe Size You will notice that if we smooth the lines, our data almost creates a bell shaped curve. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Length of Right Foot You will notice that if we smooth the lines, our data almost creates a bell shaped curve. Number of People with that Shoe Size This bell shaped curve is known as the “Bell Curve” or the “Normal Curve.” 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Length of Right Foot Number of Students Whenever you see a normal curve, you should imagine the bar graph within it. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Points on a Quiz The Nowmean, lets look mode, at quiz andscores median forwill 51all students. fall on the same value in a normal distribution. 12 13 13 12+13+13+14+14+14+14+15+15+15+15+15+15+16+16+16+16+16+16+16+16+ 17+17+17+17+17+17+17+17+17+18+18+18+18+18+18+18+18+19+19+19+19+ 14 14 14 14 19+ 19+20+20+20+20+ 21+21+22 = 867 15 15 15 15 15 15 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 19, 19, 19, 20, 20, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 867 / 51 = 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 Number of Students 20 20 20 20 21 21 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 22 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Points on a Quiz Normal distributions (bell shaped) are a family of distributions that have the same general shape. They are symmetric (the left side is an exact mirror of the right side) with scores more concentrated in the middle than in the tails. Examples of normal distributions are shown to the right. Notice that they differ in how spread out they are. The area under each curve is the same. The normal distribution and standard deviations 34% 2.35% 34% 13.5% In a normal distribution: The total area under the curve is 1. 13.5% 2.35% The normal distribution and standard deviations In a normal distribution: Approximately 68% of scores will fall within one standard deviation of the mean The normal distribution and standard deviations In a normal distribution: Approximately 95% of scores will fall within two standard deviations of the mean The normal distribution and standard deviations In a normal distribution: Approximately 99.7% of scores will fall within three standard deviations of the mean When you have a subject’s raw score, you can use the mean and standard deviation to calculate his or her standardized score if the distribution of scores is normal. Standardized scores are useful when comparing a student’s performance across different tests, or when comparing students with each other. 2.35% 13.5% 34% 34% 13.5% 2.35% z-score -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 T-score 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 IQ-score 65 70 85 100 115 130 145 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 SAT-score The number of points that one standard deviations equals varies from distribution to distribution. On one math test, a standard deviation may be 7 points. If the mean were 45, then we would know that 68% of the students scored from 38 to 52. 2.35% 24 31 13.5% 38 On another test, a standard deviation may equal 5 points. If the mean were 45, then 68% of the students would score from 40 to 50 points. 34% 34% 13.5% 2.35% 45 52 59 Points on Math Test 2.35% 30 35 13.5% 66 34% 34% 13.5% 2.35% 40 45 50 55 Points on a Different Test 60 Using standard deviation units to describe individual scores Here is a distribution with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 10: 80 -2 sd 90 -1 sd 100 What score is one sd below the mean? What score is two sd above the mean? 110 1 sd 90 120 120 2 sd Using standard deviation units to describe individual scores Here is a distribution with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 10: 80 -2 sd 90 -1 sd 100 110 1 sd 120 2 sd How many standard deviations below the mean is a score of 90? 1 How many standard deviations above the mean is a score of 120? 2 Using standard deviation units to describe individual scores Here is a distribution with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 10: 80 -2 sd 90 -1 sd 100 110 1 sd 120 2 sd What percent of your data points are < 80? 2.50% What percent of your data points are > 90? 84% Class Work In class: Workbook Page 277 #1-21 Homework Monday in class: Finish the Workbook page 277 #1-21 and then do page 266 #1-11