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Research in Ecology
Maya Damski
Males
Females
920
928
935
943
950
950
954
960
962
974
975
975
952
950
Mean:
840
850
932
960
960
965
972
980
980
985
995
1000
1000
1009
1010
1010
1010
1020
1025
1025
1028
1030
1038
1043
1054
1060
1160
Mean:
950
Median:
998
Median:
952
Mode:
950, 975
Average Length of Sharp-nose Sharks
1009
Mode:
1010
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
1000
Color
Survived
Hatchlings
Blue
13
25
Yellow
25
25
Green
18
25
Red
3
25
Orange
4
25
Number of Sea Turtle Hatchlings in
Group Site F
25
20
15
Survived
Hatchlings
10
5
0
Blue
Yellow
Green
Red
Orange
Color
Red
Orange
Yellow
Blue
Green
Purple
Black
White
Clear
Other
Number
11
5
4
15
9
1
8
13
5
2
Percentage of Bottle Cap Colors
Red
3%
7%
18%
Orange
15%
Yellow
7%
5%
Blue
Green
11%
21%
12%
Purple
Black
White
1%
Clear
Other
Bottle caps are not
only the garbage
that is washed up on
beaches. Some
examples include
plastic bags and
lumber. The litter
affects animals, and
sometimes kills them.
Frequency
Frequency
Distribution of Sea
Cigars
15
10
5
0
Size Class
Size
(in cm)
"1-5"
"6-10"
"11-15"
"16-20"
"21-25"
"26-30"
# of Sea
Cigars
0
3
4
12
5
1
Trial #
Types of Coral
Coral Planula Survival Probability
Probability
Water
Temp.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Substrate Wave
/ Depth Action
3
3
6
6
4
5
4
1
3
1
6
3
5
5
1
6
1
4
5
6
1
2
1
5
6
3
1
2
5
3
3
2
5
6
5
6
Survived?
Yes or No
4 Yes
3 No
1 No
6 Yes
3 No
4 No
6 No
3 No
3 No
3 No
6 No
6 No
3 No
2 No
4 Yes
3 No
1 No
4 No
Variance is one of the two ways to describe how far away your
data is from the mean.
This formula is the way to calculate variance.
= the sum
𝑋 = the mean of the data
X = each data value
n = the number of values
Standard Deviation also shows how spread out the data are.
Sample Distribution of Sea
Cigar Lengths
TDC of 25
Mangrove
Seedlings
Frequency
3
2.5
Frequency
2
1.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
Size
1
0.5
0
0
5
Length of Seedling (cm)
10
Frequency
6
0.3
8
0.8
10
1.5
12
2.2
14
2.5
16
2.2
18
1.5
20
0.8
22
0.3
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Length (cm)
Theoretical Distribution Curve (TDC) is
an ideal picture of a distribution based
upon random sampling.
Control
The t-test equation tests if there is a
significant difference between the
means of two independent samples.
The t-test is calculated by the tstatistic. The formula for the t –
statistic is on the bottom of this slide.
Key
X1=mean of the first group
X2=mean of the second group
n1=number of _ in the first group
n2 =number of _ in the second group
p
Treatment
14
14
13
13
13
15
13
15
13
15
13
14
14
14
15
15
P= 0.000545057
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