Download Rocks

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Geophysics wikipedia, lookup

Age of the Earth wikipedia, lookup

Large igneous province wikipedia, lookup

Algoman orogeny wikipedia, lookup

Basalt wikipedia, lookup

Sedimentary rock wikipedia, lookup

Igneous rock wikipedia, lookup

Clastic rock wikipedia, lookup

Weathering wikipedia, lookup

Geology of Great Britain wikipedia, lookup

Great Lakes tectonic zone wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Rocks
And the Rock
Cycle
The Rock Cycle
Rock Cycle
Rocks
A
mixture of minerals,
mineraloids, glass, or organic
matter.
 Three main types of Rock
– Igneous
– Metamorphic
– Sedimentary
The Rock Cycle
The changing of rocks from one form to
another by processes such as
weathering, erosion, compaction,
cementation, melting, and cooling.
Igneous
Rocks
Igneous Rock
The beginning of the
Rock Cycle
Igneous Rocks




Starts as MAGMA…
rock that has melted
from pressure and heat
in the Earth
Pressure and heat
build
Magma rises to
surface
Comes out in Volcano
as LAVA
Intrusive




Rocks form below
Earth’s surface
Cool slowly
Large crystals form
Examples
– Granite
– Diorite
– Gabbro
Vs.
Extrusive




Rocks form when lava
cools on or near
Earth’s surface
Fast cooling
Small crystals form
Examples
– Obsidian
– Pumice
– Basalt
Intrusive
Granite


Notice the crystals
The crystals are pieces
of mineral
Diorite
Gabbro
Extrusive
Obsidian
Rhyolite
Pumice
Basalt
Scoria
Andesite
Three Compositions that effect
Igneous Rock Types
Basaltic
Dense, heavy
Dark Colored
Rich in Fe, Mg
Hawaii
Granitic
Andesitic
Light Colored
Halfway
Lower Density between other
Thick and Stiff two
Lot of S, O
Violent Eruption
Igneous Rock Types
Ingeous rocks
Basaltic
Andesitic
Granitic
Instusive
Extrusive
Instrusive
Extrusive
Instusive
Extrusive
Gabbro
Basalt
Scoria
Diorite
Andesite
Granite
Rhyolite
Pumice
Obsidian
Basaltic
Andesitic
Granitic
Metamorphic
Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks that have changed due to temperature
and pressure increases or that undergo
changes in composition

Can be formed from:
– Igneous Rocks
– Sedimentary Rocks
– Metamorphic Rocks
Formation of Metamorphic
Rocks




Rocks beneath the
surface under pressure
and heat
Once reach critical pt,
rocks melt
Or mineral grains are
flattened
New rocks formed by
combination of
processes
Classification of Metamorphic
Foliated

When mineral grains
flatten and line up in
parallel bands
– Slate
– Gneiss
Nonfoliated

When no banding
occurs during
formation
– Quartizite
– Marble
Before and After

Shale

Slate
Before and After

Granite

Gneiss
Before and After

Sandstone

Quartzite
Before and After

Limestone

Marble
The Rock Cycle Now
Sedimentary
Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Sediments and Sedimentary
Rocks
Sedimentary rock are made when sediments
become pressed or cemented together or
when sediments precipitate out of a solution
 Sediments are loose materials such as rock
fragments, mineral grains, bits of plants and
animals that have been moved by wind,
water, ice, or gravity

How they are made



1st wind and/or water
erode existing rock
2nd wind, water, ice,
or gravity move
sediments to a new
location
3rd new rocks are
made by compaction
or cementation
The two C’s that make Sed. Rock
 Compaction: after
erosion has moved
sediment to new
location, pressure
from upper layers
pushed down on lower
layers and small
sediments stick
together
 Cementation: from
large sediments, water
socks through soil and
rock and dissolves
minerals (calcite,
hematite, & limonite)
these fill small spaces
in-between and harden