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Did you know the Earth is a giant rock?
• Minerals are nonliving, solid substances
• They occur naturally - they are not made by
people
• Minerals have different shapes, colors,
weights, and degrees of hardness
• Minerals come together to form rocks
•There are three types of rocks:
•Each type of rock is formed in a
different way
• Igneous rocks form when molten material cools and
hardens.
– If the molten material is inside the earth, it is called magma.
– If the molten material is on the earth’s surface, it is called lava.
• The molten material crystallizes into different minerals.
• The properties and sizes of the various crystals depend on
the magma’s composition and rate of cooling.
• Magma pushes up toward the
surface.
• A volcano forms on the
surface.
• Lava flows out of the volcano
and cools quickly, forming
igneous rocks.
• Underground magma pools
form, the magma cools
slowly, forming crystallized
igneous rocks.
Examples of
Igneous Rocks…
Obsidian
Pumice
Granite
Basalt
The beauty of
Pumice
• Sedimentary rocks are made of sediments
– Sediments come from eroded igneous,
metamorphic, and other sedimentary rocks, and the
remains of dead plants and animals.
• These sediments are deposited in layers and
are then squeezed and compressed into rock.
• Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.
• Over time, eroded
sediments deposited
at the base of a river.
• Under great
pressure, the
sediments are
pressed or squeezed
to form sedimentary
rocks.
Examples of Sedimentary Rocks…
Shale
Limestone
Sandstone
Conglomerate
Sandstone
Sedimentary Samples
• Metamorphic rocks form when sedimentary,
igneous, or other metamorphic rocks are
transformed by great heat and/or pressure.
• The word “metamorphic” come from the Greek
language and means “to change form”.
• Sediments sink and
add pressure on lower
rocks.
• Heat and pressure
beneath the surface
change the mineral
make-up older rocks,
forming new
metamorphic rocks.
Examples of
Metamorphic Rocks…
Marble
Gneiss
Schist
Metamorphic Mts.
Metamorphic Rock:
Before and After
Types of Rocks
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Made from Magma
That has Cooled and Hardened
Made from Sediments
Under Under Pressure
Form when Heat or Pressure
Changes the Minerals into
New Minerals
Rock cycle graphic: Earth Science: Part 2, (2002). The rock
cycle. http://www.beyondbooks.com/ear82/7.asp
Rock formation animations: Rocky the Rock Hound.
http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/
Gravel background: sprott.physics.wisc.edu/ fractals.htm
Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic fill photos:
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/rxmin/rock.html
Title of Lesson: Rocks Rock!
Content Area: Science
Grade Level: Third Grade
Subject: Rocks and Minerals
Objectives:
•The student will be able to tell that all rocks are
made of minerals.
•The student will be able to name the three types of
rocks.
•The student will be able to describe the three ways
that rocks are formed.
•The student will be able to explain the rock cycle.
Purpose of Presentation
• To activate and build the students’ schema
and background knowledge on rocks.
• To explain the three types of rocks in more
detail than the textbook.
• To increase student interest in the topic of
rocks.
• To accommodate visual and auditory
learners.