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Rocks, Weathering, Erosion,
Deposition, Rock Cycle, and
Watersheds
Rocks – Types and Characteristics
Igneous Rocks:
Origin
Texture
Characteristics
Mineral composition
State whether each is a characteristic
of a plutonic or volcanic rock:
• Large crystal size
• Vesicular
• Small crystal size
• Batholith
• Pumice
• Solidified lava
• Solidified magma
Which graph best represents the textures of granite,
pegmatite, and rhyolite?
A
B
C
D
Rocks – Types and Characteristics
Sedimentary:
Types: Clastic, chemical,
organic
Environment of formation
Environment of Formation
• Sediments accumulate in streams, lakes, and
oceans. Sediments deposit based upon water
velocity.
Which graph best represents the correct relationship between the discharge
of a river and the particle size that can be transported by that river?
Rocks – Types and Characteristics
Metamorphic Rocks:
•
Parent rocks
•
Heat and pressure
•
More dense; less porous
•
types of metamorphism
regional
contact/local
Texture
foliated vs. nonfoliated
Weathering
• Types:
– Mechanical
– Chemical
Measuring Weathering
• Mechanical:
– Lab----Sugar Cubes:
• 1.
• 2.
Solving for changes in mass and volume
Calculating Rate of Change (ESRT Page 1)
• Chemical:
– Lab----Acid Rain and Rock Types
• 1.
• 2.
Solving for mass loss
Calculating Rate of Change
Be able to predict future changes based on observations and measurements.
Rates of Weathering
Acid Rain and its Effects on Rocks: Exposure Time = 48 Hours
Rock Type
Initial Mass (g)
Final Mass (g)
Marble
58.11
45.96
Sandstone
42.62
42.53
Rate of Change
(g/hour)
Mass after 100
hours (g)
Calculate the rate of change for each rock type and predict the
mass for each rock type if exposed for additional 52 hours.
Erosion = Transport
Agents of erosion
Wind
Water
Ice
Describe the agent of
erosion in the picture.
Particle Size and Water Velocity
Sediments were analyzed
near the shore of a nearby
stream. The sediments were
mostly between 0.2 – 1.2 cm in
diameter.
1.Which sediment particle
type has that diameter?
2. What velocity (cm/s) is required
to move the sediment particle?
3.If the sediment was compacted
and cemented together, what type
of sedimentary rock will it form?
4. The velocity of a stream was
measured to be 75 cm/s. What
sediments could be transported
at that velocity?
Characteristics of Sediments
•
•
•
•
Porosity
Permeability
Water retention
Saturation
Describe the relationship between
porosity and permeability
Describe the relationship
between water retention
and particle size
Describe the relationship between
Particle size and porosity/permeability
The diagram below shows columns A, B, C, and D that
contain different sediments.
Equal volumes of
water were poured
through each
column.
• Which column of
sediment retained
the most water?
• Which retained
the least?
• Which is most
permeable?
• Which is least
permeable?
Stream and Meander Dynamics
The greatest stream velocities are found closest
to points:
A and B
B and C
C and D
D and A
Erosion will occur at points:
A and B
B and C
C and D
D and A
Deposition will occur at points:
A and B
B and C
C and D
D and A
Which sediments will deposit first upon entering
the lake?
The diagram below shows several different landscape features.
Point X and Y indicate locations on the stream bank.
A
• Identify which point, X or Y, has more stream
erosion and explain why the amounts of
erosion are different.
• Explain why the stream meanders on the
floodplain, but not in the mountains.
• The beach consists of particles with
diameters from 0.01 cm to 0.1 cm. Identify
the sedimentary rock that will form when
burial and cementation of these sediments
occur.
• Identify the feature at A.
Resistance
A cross-section of Niagara Falls
Which TWO rock units appear
to be most resistant to
weathering and erosion?
• Lockport dolostone and
Whirlpool sandstone
• Rochester shale and Albion
sandstone and shale
• Clinton limestone and shale
and Queenston shale
• Thorold sandstone and
Queenston shale
The block diagram shows a volcano
Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that most likely formed
on the surface of this volcano?
Watersheds
Watershed boundaries,
or divides, are typically
defined by the highest
elevation that drains
a stream.
Stream Order
Identify the correct
Stream Order for each
of the following locations.
Rock Cycle
Page 6 of ESRT