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Transcript
History of Atomic Structure
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Ancient Philosophy
Who: Aristotle, Democritus
When: More than 2000 years ago
Where: Greece
What: Aristotle believed in 4 elements: Earth, Air,
Fire, and Water. Democritus believed that
matter was made of small particles he named
“atomos” (greek word meaning “unable to
divide”).
• Why: Aristotle and Democritus used observation
and inference to explain the existence of
everything.
Democritus
Aristotle
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Particle Theory
Who: John Dalton
When: 1808
Where: England
What: Described atoms as tiny particles that could
not be divided.
• Thought each element was made of its own kind of
atom.
• Atoms join to form compounds
• Why: Building on the ideas of Democritus in ancient
Greece.
John Dalton
Discovery of Electrons
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Who: J. J. Thompson
When: 1897
Where: England
What: Thompson discovered that electrons were
smaller particles of an atom and were negatively
charged.
• Why: Came up with plum pudding model which
said the atom was a solid + charged sphere w/
negatively charged electrons embedded in it.
J. J. Thompson
J J Thomson (Plum pudding model)
Atomic Structure I
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Who: Ernest Rutherford
When: 1911
Where: England
What: Conducted the gold foil experiment and
discovered the nucleus.
• Why: Decided that the atoms were mostly empty
space, but had a dense + charged central core
(nucleus) surrounded by negatively (-) charged
electrons
Ernest Rutherford
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Atomic Structure II
Who: Niels Bohr
When: 1913
Where: England
What: Proposed that electrons traveled in fixed
paths (solar system model) around the nucleus.
Scientists still use the Bohr model to show the
number of electrons in each orbit around the
nucleus.
• Why: Bohr was trying to show why the negative
electrons were not sucked into the nucleus of the
atom.
Niels Bohr
Atomic Structure III
• Who: Erwin Schrodinger
• When: 1926
• What: Proposed the Electron Cloud Model which
said electrons travel around the nucleus in
random orbits.
• Why: Scientists cannot predict where they will
be at any given moment.
• Electrons travel so fast, they appear to form a
“cloud” around the nucleus.
Electron Cloud Model