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Transcript
Chemistry of Life
At the Completion of this Unit, Students will be able to:
A. Identify and define the parts of an atom.
B. Demonstrate how to use the Periodic Table of Elements
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
D. Explain the properties of water.
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules.
G. Explain the role of enzymes.
A. Students will be able to identify and define the parts of an atom.
What makes up the chemistry of life?






The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the
atom.
The Greek word atomos, which means “unable to cut”.
This word was first used nearly 2500 years ago by Greek
philosopher Democritus.
Democritus asked a simple question “If you take an object like
chalk and break it in half are both pieces still chalk?”
Yes, suppose you break the chalk down again and again and
again. Can you continue to divide without limit? Or is there a
limit? Democritus thought their was a limit.
Democritus called the smallest fragment the atom, a name
scientists use today.
A. Identify and define the parts of an atom.
.
Chemistry of Life
– the SMALLEST
particle that can exist and
still be considered a certain
kind of matter (anything that
has mass)
 All LIVING and NONLIVING
things are made of atoms
 Atoms
A. Identify and define the parts of an atom.
.
Atoms -- have three components
– negatively
charged; surround nucleus
 PROTONS -- positively charged;
found in nucleus
 NEUTRONS -- neutral; found in
nucleus
 ELECTRONS
Are you with me??
Which of the following correctly pairs each
atom component with it’s charge?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Electrons—Positive
Neutrons—Negative
Protons—Positive
Electrons—Neutral
A. Identify and define the parts of an atom.
.
Electrons
Protons&
Neutrons
(Nucleus)
Energy
Levels
B. Demonstrate how to use the Periodic Table of Elements
B. Demonstrate how to use the Periodic Table of Elements
6
Atomic Number =
# of Protons and # of Electrons
C
Carbon
12
Chemical Symbol
Chemical Name
Atomic Weight=
# of Protons + Neutrons
B. Demonstrate how to use the Periodic Table of Elements
Atomic Number =
6
C
Carbon
12
# of Protons and # of Electrons
Chemical Symbol
Chemical Name
Atomic Weight=
# of Protons + Neutrons
Remember:
No more than
2 electrons on
first ring, No
more than 8
on second
P= 6
E=6
N= 6 (Atomic Weight- Atomic # = Neutrons)
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Chemistry of Life
 Elements
-- a substance
that is made of only ONE
kind of ATOM
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Major Elements of Life
C
= Carbon
 H = Hydrogen
 O = Oxygen
 P = Phosphorus
 K = Potassium
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Major Elements of Life
I
= Iodine
 N = Nitrogen
 S = Sulfur
 Ca = Calcium
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Major Elements of Life
 Fe
= Iron
 Mg = Magnesium
 Na = Sodium
 Cl = Chlorine
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Where do we find these elements?

In all living and nonliving things.
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Major Elements in Human Body
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Chemistry of Life
– matter that is
made of more than ONE kind of
ATOM
 Compounds are made by atoms
sharing or taking ELECTRONS
from the other atoms in the
compound
 Compounds
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Compound Example
( H2O ) – each
molecule is made of two
HYDROGEN atoms and
one OXYGEN atom
 Water
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Water Molecule
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Chemical Bonds

The main types of Chemical Bonds in a
compound are:
– Ionic Bonds
– Covalent Bonds
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Ionic Bonds

An IONIC BOND is formed when one or
more electrons are transferred from one
atom to another.
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Ionic Bond Example
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Covalent Bonds

A COVALENT BOND is formed
when electrons are shared between
atoms.

Single bond: Share two electrons
double bond: Share four electrons
Triple bond: Atoms share six or more electrons



MOLECULE. The structure that
results when atoms are joined
together by a covalent bond
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds.
Covalent Bond Example
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds
The Water Molecule






One atom of oxygen binds to two atoms of hydrogen
to form H20.
Like all molecules a water molecule (H20) is neutral.
Water molecules are held together by a hydrogen
bond.
Hydrogen Bonds are not as strong as covalent or
ionic bonds.
The hydrogen atoms are attached to one side of the
oxygen atom, resulting in a water molecule having a
positive charge on the side where the hydrogen
atoms are and a negative charge on the other side,
where the oxygen atom is.
Since opposites attract, water molecules tend to
attract each other, making water kind of "sticky."
C. List the major chemical elements and compounds
The Water Molecule
D. Explain the properties of water.
Properties of Water

Cohesion is an
attraction between
molecules of the same
substance.
– Example: molecules on
the surface of water
are drawn inward,
forming drops and
beads
D. Explain the properties of water.
Properties of Water

Adhesion is an attraction
between molecules of
different substances.
– Example: Water clinging to
paper towel.

Capillary action is one of
the forces that draws water
out of the roots of a plant
and up into it’s stems and
leaves.
(Cohesion holds the column of
water together as it rises)
D. Explain the properties of water.
Properties of Water

Surface Tension is caused
by the capillary action of
water
– Is the reason some insects and
spiders can glide across the
surface of the water
Specific Heat of Water
D. Explain the properties of water.
Properties of Water
Lab
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
Why is water so important to
agriculture?
 At
least 75% of animal body
mass is water
 Plants contain 70-80% water
 Transports nutrients and
wastes
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
Why is water so important to
agriculture?
 Dissolves
compounds -“Universal Solvent”
 Regulates body temperature
in animals
 Provides structure for plants
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
What is this?
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
How much milk does she
produce daily?

80- 100 pounds per day
– 8 pounds per gallon
E. Summarize the importance of water in agriculture.
How much WATER does a milk
cow drink daily?

2 gallons of water to
produce 1 gallon of milk
Remember…
 80- 120 pounds per day
– 8 pounds per gallon
20-30 gallons
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Macromolecules=
A Very Large Molecule
Remember…
Molecules are structures that are made when
atoms are joined by a covalent bond.
Vs
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Macromolecules=
A Very Large Molecule
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Carbohydrates
 Provide
energy
 Three Types
–Monosaccharides
–Disaccharides
–Polysaccharides
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
 simple
SUGAR
 contain C6H12O6
–Examples: GLUCOSE,
FRUCTOSE, AND GALACTOSE
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Disaccharides
 double
SUGAR
 contain two RINGS
 SUCROSE and LACTOSE
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides
 complex
CARBOHYDRATES
 made of RINGS of SUGAR
–Example: STARCH,
CELLULOSE, and GLYCOGEN
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Proteins
 STRUCTURE
and FUNCTION
 Made of H, O, C, N
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Proteins
Structure of Proteins

Amino Acids – building BLOCKS
– 20 different kinds – all have the same
elements but in different amounts



Polypeptides – chains of AMINO ACIDS
Joined by peptide bonds
Proteins – chains of POLYPEPTIDES
Used to make SKIN, HAIR, MUSCLE,
ORGANS, etc.
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Carbon
Atoms
Beef
Chemical
Bonds
Protein
Lipids





FATTY molecules
used to store ENERGY
Do not DISSOLVE in WATER
Lipids have less OXYGEN than
carbohydrates
Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS,
AND WAXES
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
F. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules
Nucleic Acids



Store INFORMATION that controls
CELL activities
Made of a PHOSPHATE SUGAR, and
a BASE.
Examples of Nucleic Acids are: DNA
and RNA
Nucleic Acid

Two types of nucleic acids:
– DNA
– RNA




DNA stores the genetic information of organisms; RNA is used to transfer
that information into the amino acid sequences of proteins.
DNA and RNA are polymers composed of subunits called nucleotides.
Nucleotides consist of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a
nitrogenous base.
Five nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides:
– the purines
• adenine (A)
• guanine (G)
– the pyrimidines
• cytosine (C)
• thymine (T) (DNA only)
• uracil (U) (RNA only)
Nucleic Acids
G. Explain the role of enzymes.
Enzymes




Cells use enzymes to speed up
chemical reactions that take place in
cells.
Enzymes must collide with enough
energy to break bonds creating
chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions create energy.
Substrates and Products
Enzymes

Lactose and Lactase
Bell Quiz:
1- What makes up an Atomic Number?
2- What charge does an electron have?
3- What charge does a neutron have?
4- How do you determine the number of
neutrons?
5- What is composed of atoms? Living or
non-living things?
Bell Quiz:
Name 5 elements on the Periodic Table
along with their
-Chemical Symbol, Atomic Weight, and
Atomic Number
Bell Work 9/24/13
1- What is an ionic bond?
2- What is a covalent bond?
3- Draw a diagram of what
each bond looks like.
4- List 4 major elements of life
Bell Quiz: 11/2/09
1- What is PH?
2-Name 5 items we tested on
Friday
3-What is a basic solution? (#’s)
4-What is an acidic solution?
(#’s)
5- What # on the ph scale is
neutral?
Bell Quiz:
1- What is adhesion
2-What is cohesion
3- What causes water on a leaf to
form into beads?
4-Name 1 force that draws water
out of the roots of a plant and
up through the stem
5- Draw a picture of a water
molecule
Bell Quiz:
1- What is a macromolecule?
2-Name 4 macromolecules
3- What helps with structure and
function?
4-What macromolecule is NOT
water soluble?
5- What macromolecule provides
energy
Unit Packet
1- Vocab Sheet: 5 pts
2- Notes (all sections stapled
together) 5 pts
3-Nutrition Video Notes 5 pts
4- Properties of Water Lab Sheet 5 pts
5- Nutrition Label/ Macromolecule
Notes 5 pts
6- Test Review 5 pts