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Transcript
Periodic Properties
Atomic Size - the size of the atom decreases as you
move from the left side of the chart to the right
side of the chart; the size of the atom increases
as you move down a column in the chart
a. adding additional orbitals causes the
size of the atom to increase as you
move down the chart
b. adding additional protons in the nucleus
and additional electrons to the same
orbital causes the atom to contract as
you move across a row
Periodic Properties
Ionization energy - the amount of energy required to
remove an electron from the neutral atom; electrons
are always removed from the highest energy orbital
first. Removal of electrons creates positive ions
called CATIONS
Ionization energy increases as you move
from left to right in a row of the periodic chart
Ionization energy decreases from top to
bottom as you move down a column
Ionization energy follows the same pattern as atomic
size. Why might this be the case?
Periodic Properties
Electronegativity - the attraction that an atom has for an
additional electron. Linus Pauling invented this
scale in 1953 and assigned a value of 4.0 to F
electronegativity increases from left to right in a
row in the periodic table
electronegativity decreases from top to bottom in
a column in the periodic table
Noble gases are not included in electronegativity.
Periodic Properties
Electron Affinity - the energy given off when an electron
is added to an atom creating a negative ion called
an ANION
electron affinity increases from left to right in a
row in the periodic table
electron affinity decreases from top to bottom in
a column in the periodic table
Noble gases are not included in electron affinity.
Periodic Properties
Metallic character - metallic character might be described
as the ability to give up an electron; the easier an
element looses an electron, the more metallic that
element is.
Metallic character decreases as you move
across a row in the periodic chart; the most
metallic elements are on the left side
Metallic character increases from top to
bottom in a column in the periodic chart; the
most metallic elements will be found at the
bottom of the chart.
Periodic Properties
Smallest atom - He
Largest atom - Fr
Smallest ionization energy - Fr
Largest ionization energy - He
Least metallic character - He
Most metallic character - Fr
Least electronegative element - Fr
Most electronegative element - F
Types of Elements
• Metals
• Nonmetals
• Semimetals (metalloids)