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Building Resilient
Marine Protected Areas
in Madagascar
By Harifidy Ralison
31 January 2008
• Funded by the MacArthur Foundation
• Implementation period: January 2008 to December 2010
• Principal partner: ANGAP
Challenges for effective conservation
Three challenges to overcome for effective conservation:
(a) MPAs part of a broader sustainable resource management
(b) climate change impacts requires a flexible, adaptive approach to
(c) long-term financial sustainability remains an elusive goal for all
PAs in Madagascar.
About the challenge on Climate change
• Imaginative responses needed to address the effects of climate
• Successful conservation: flexible, adaptive management
approaches that can identify climate change effects
• Approaches must be based on the best science available
combined with effective monitoring of well-identified indicators
Why this project now?
• Madagascar’s adoption of new international norms (such as
other IUCN categories) opens door to new and more innovative
Appearance of climate change impacts makes the moment opportune
to begin to apply the best science available
Necessity to identify and develop new approaches to financial
sustainability at the end of the National Environmental Action Plan
Overall goal of the project
To identify and apply new, innovative policies and strategies
which help to ensure that the Nosy Hara Archipelago and the
Toliara Reef system have secure long-term funding and are
resistant and resilient to climate change and evolving patterns
of use, ensuring the long-term maintenance of biodiversity and
ecosystem services.
• First attempt to apply specific solutions that help stakeholders
to adapt to, or mitigate the impacts of climate change
• Condition of success of MPAs: maintain or restore critical
biodiversity and manage resources sustainably
• MPAs help to protect livelihoods depending on the sea and
Four objectives:
Climate change responses are integrated into MPA design and
management, and sound monitoring programmes are
Key stakeholder capacity to be effective marine/coastal
resource managers is strengthened
Feasible sustainable financing mechanisms for Nosy Hara are
A knowledge base for marine biodiversity and MPAs is
developed and used by all stakeholders as an educational tool
• MPA design and management contribute to building the
resistance and resilience of marine biodiversity
• Sound monitoring programs will offer the most relevant
methods and indicators
• The project will build also upon:
– The results and recommendations from this on-going
marine biodiversity and livelihood vulnerability assessment
– The experience of WWF network
Examples of monitoring criteria:
(a) overall and marine resources impacts from climate change and the
perceptions of different stakeholders in this respect;
(b) the significance of new IUCN/SAPM good governance principles to
adapting to climate change through improved management-sharing
(c) the effectiveness of measures taken to adapt to or mitigate climate
change impacts;
(d) the effectiveness of the knowledge base in promoting MPA support
and in finding solutions to climate change and sustainable resource
Monitoring indicators:
(a) basic terrestrial climate data from local weather stations;
(b) specific marine biophysical and climate trends such as salinity,
turbidity, pH and temperature;
(c) biodiversity parameters including coral reef health and diversity,
coral fish diversity, coral fish biomass (mostly indirectly from
catches) and key species indicators such as turtle nests;
(d) pertinence and application of good governance principles and
their contribution to climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Major policy implications
(a) improved management/coordination skills for MPAs within
(b) MPA integration into regional land and sea use plans, and thus
greater political support;
(c) commitments to design and create multi-purpose MPAs that
protect critical biodiversity and maintain/improve commercial
and subsistence resources;
(d) consolidation of MPA values within the Durban Vision process
and MAP commitments concerning the environment, and
sustainable economic growth.
Major outcomes:
Climate change monitoring and responses are integrated into
MPA management at the two target sites;
Appropriate good governance principles are adopted and
implemented, including management responsibility and
benefits sharing;
Resource quantity and quality are stabilized and in the future
Critical habitats and species are maintained or restored;
Sustainable revenues are identified and begin to appear;
Knowledge of MPAs and their value is improved and shared
among a wide variety of users and MPAs.