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Overview of
Pradeep Kurukulasuriya, PhD
Team Leader- Climate Change Adaptation Programming (SCCF/LDCF/SPA)
Energy and Environment Group
Bureau for Development Policy
© 2009 UNDP. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
Proprietary and Confidential. Not For Distribution Without Prior Written Permission.
SPA Background
At COP 7 (2001) GEF was requested to provide financial
resources for: “establishing pilot or demonstration projects
to show how adaptation planning and assessment can be
practically translated into projects...”
Response: Strategic Priority “Piloting an Operational
Approach to Adaptation (SPA)” established in 2004
Initial Budget: $50 million
SPA Objectives
Objective of SPA: reduce vulnerability and increase
adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate
change in GEF focal areas
SPA supports pilot and demonstration projects that
address local adaptation needs AND generate global
environmental benefits (GEBs) in GEF focal areas:
•biological diversity
•climate change
•international waters
•land degradation
•ozone layer depletion
•persistent organic pollutants (POPS)
SPA vs. other GEF Funds
SPA Eligible Projects
•generate both local (development-focused) and global
environmental benefits.
•emphasis on structured learning and capacity building
Other GEF Funds:
For projects that focus primarily on development benefits —
health, agriculture, water or infrastructure, etc.
•Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF)
•Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)
•Global environmental benefits– not a prerequisite
The global benefits required for SPA-funded
adaptation activities may be generated:
•in a GEF focal areas
•or in a combination of focal areas.
Adaptation projects largely in two focal areas:
•Land Degradation
Adaptation by GEF Focal Area
•reduced risks of global biodiversity loss
•enhanced protection of ecosystems and
their species
•increased sustainability of biodiversity
Priority areas for adaptation
Integrating climate change risk
considerations into:
•protected area systems and/or other
initiatives to support BD
•coral reefs
Adaptation by GEF Focal Area
Land Degradation
•sustainable land management to
preserve conserve and restore the
structure and functional integrity of
•stabilize sediment storage and release
in water-bodies
Priority areas for adaptation
integration of climate change risks
- sustainable land management planning
Adaptation by GEF Focal Area
International Waters
Transboundary concerns regarding
international waters addressed.
Areas of support:
•support physical habitat restoration in
•coastal and marine areas lakes, and watercourses
•strengthening joint management of shared aquatic resources
•reducing transfer of aquatic invasive species
•reducing transboundary and land-based sources of pollution
•balancing competing water uses through support to integrated land and
water management
Priority areas for adaptation
Integrating climate change risks into existing efforts to address
multiple stresses on water bodies and basins and their use.
Incremental reasoning
GEF SPA funds the incremental costs of adaptation activities that ensure
the delivery or protection of GEBs in all GEF focal areas.
Project preparation
1. Proponent prepare a baseline scenario (i.e. only those activities
considered in baseline development planning. Typically address nonclimate change related drivers of a problem)
2. Proponents prepare an alternative GEF scenario to include activities
that, in the absence of climate change, would be expected to produce
the desired GEBs. Add SPA-funded activities that ensure GEBs by
improving the resilience (to climate change) of the systems
Difference between costs associated with baseline scenario and alternative
scenario are the incremental costs.
SPA Outcomes
Outcomes of SPA projects:
• enhanced adaptive capacity
• reduced vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change
• delivery GEBs in the face of climate change impacts
Monitoring (Critical element in SPA projects)
Outputs monitored and indicators developed and evaluated on
a project-by-project basis,
Outputs monitored by a double set of key indicators that
measure progress addressing adaptation (i.e. VRA) and
generating global environmental benefits (as in typical
SGP project).
Did you know?
Hierarchy of a log frame for GEF Projects:
Outcomes: changed conditions. What the “project” leaves behind. MOST
Outputs: the tangible products and services that come out of the use of
resources in the project
contribute to the outcomes
Activities/inputs: what needs to be done to realize outputs and the inputs
needed to produce the outputs
Outcomes and outputs need indicators. Must be measurable