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Our Planet’s Heating System
Sun, wind and ocean currents
Chapter objectives
1. Understand the term ‘greenhouse effect’.
2. Be able to explain how the greenhouse effect warms the
earth.
3. Understand how people’s actions can lead to global
warming.
4. Learn how earth’s heath is spread around the planet.
5. Discover why wind occurs and how the air moves.
6. Learn about two ocean currents (great rivers that flow
slowly across the oceans).
Greenhouse effect
Key words
1. Atmosphere – a blanket of gases around the
earth.
2. Climate Change – changes to the world’s
atmosphere.
3. Greenhouse gases
4. Global warming
Did you know…..
• The sun heats the earth?
• The earth then heats the atmosphere
• The atmosphere is a blanket of gases
surrounding the earth – it includes nitrogen
(78%), oxygen (21%) and small amounts of
other gases such as carbon dioxide.
What is Climate Change?
• Climate Change refers to changes in
the world’s atmosphere.
• It includes a rise in average global
temperature and changes in rainfall,
and other weather patterns.
What is causing Climate
Change?
The Greenhouse Effect
• At the heart of Climate Change
is the GREENHOUSE EFFECT.
effetdeserretoimeme.com
Greenhouse Effect
• Greenhouses trap
heat from the sun.
• The glass panels let
in light but keep
heat from escaping.
• This causes the
greenhouse to heat
up.
qwickstep.com
Greenhouse Effect
• The same thing happens when a car is left in
direct sunlight.
itswrong.webs.com
0n Earth, the
atmospheric
gases allow
sunshine to pass
through but
absorb heat
that is radiated
(bounced) back
from the
warmed surface
of the Earth
kirklees.gov.uk
Greenhouse Effect
• The gases in the atmosphere
act like a blanket around our
planet which traps in heat,
making the temperature rise.
• This is called the Greenhouse
Effect and is a natural
process that keeps the planet
warm and sustains life.
• If the greenhouse effect
didn’t exist, the average
temperature on earth would
be around -18ºC.
solcomhouse.com
Without
greenhouse
gases,
heat would
escape back into
space and Earth’s
average
temperature
would be about
16ºC colder...
...and the
Earth would
not be warm
enough for
humans to
live.
Greenhouse Effect
So what’s the problem?
• The increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses released
into the atmosphere due to human activities such as
burning fossil fuels and cutting down forests is trapping
more heat so making the planet warmer than it should
be. This results in Global Warming.
kirklees.gov.uk
Global warming!
newscientist.com
Greenhouse gases
• There are six greenhouse gases and it is
thought that carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of
the most important greenhouse gas.
Water vapour
Methane
(H20)
(CH4)
Ozone
Nitrogen
dioxide
(O3)
(NO2)
Carbon dioxide
Sulphur dioxide
(C02)
(S02)
GREENHOUSE GASES
Greenhouse gases can come
from;
1. Natural sources
2. Man-Made sources
Natural Climate Change
Greenhouse gases occur naturally and
cause the climate to change in a normal,
natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.
Methane
(CH4)
Nitrogen
dioxide
(NO2)
Sulphur dioxide
(S02)
Carbon dioxide
(C02)
Carbon Dioxide Occurs
Naturally
wondertime.go.com
Produced by living organisms through respiration
(breathing).
Sulphur Dioxide Occurs Naturally
geology.com
Released from volcanoes
Methane Occurs Naturally
michellehenry.fr
Decomposition of organic matter (especially in wetlands).
Nitrous Oxide Occurs Naturally
123rf.com
From
bacteria
in soil.
fnal.gov
During
lightning
storms.
Man-made Climate Change
Man has increased the amount of
Greenhouse gases going into the
atmosphere.
marchantscience.wikispaces.com
Man-made Climate Change
This increases the Greenhouse
Effect.
marchantscience.wikispaces.com
Man-made Sources of
Carbon Dioxide
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Burning of solid waste, wood, and fossil fuels
(oil, natural gas, and coal).
Carbon dioxide concentrations have been on
the rise since the industrial revolution
grida.no
Man-made sources of Sulphur
dioxide
A lump of coal might look
like it only contains
carbon, but there is an
impurity hidden in within
it.
mii.org
Sulphur is found in most
fossil fuels and is a
problem when it burns it
forms sulphur dioxide.
hertenberger.co.za
Man-made Sources of Nitrous
Oxide
Agricultural and industrial processes
gosolarenergyforlife.com
Man-made Sources of Nitrous
Oxide
Car Engines
The spark plug in the car engine
causes the nitrogen and oxygen in
the air to react together.
Man-made Sources of Methane
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
BURP
BURP
Production and
transport
of
fossil
fuels
‘CH
’
‘CH4’
‘CH4’
4
BURP
Decomposition of organic waste (landfills/livestock
BURP
‘CH4’
farming)
BURP
‘CH4’
BURP
BURP belch tremendous
‘CH4’
DID YOU
KNOW...Ruminants
‘CH4’
‘CH4’
BURP
amounts of methane (and other greenhouse gases)
‘CH4’
Climate
been concerned
Now
comescientists
fears of have
a methane
time bomb,about
part
a so-called “methane time bomb”…
two…
…this
a result
of melting
of the sub-sea
…set
offone
when
warming
Arctic temperatures
layer of permafrost
which
will release
melt
permafrost
and methane
cause
deposits formed before the last ice age.
frozen vegetation in peat bogs
and other areas to decay,
bajan.wordpress.com
releasing methane
and carbon dioxide.
bajan.wordpress.com
The effects of out of control
Climate Change
If athe
Even
little
greenhouse
extra
effect
warming
becomes
may cause
stronger, it
problems
could make
for
humans,
the Earth
plants, than
and
warmer
animals.
usual.
freakyweather.com
What if the Earth heats up?
Sea levels around the world could rise.
Cities on coasts would flooding.
lilithnews.com
sinostand.com
What if the Earth heats up?
Temperate places that now receive frequent
rain and snowfall might become hotter and
drier, leading to more drought.
serc.carleton.edu
What if the Earth heats up?
Frequent periods of drought would make
it hard to raise crops for food, leading to
famine.
photoshelter.com
jamblichus.wordpress.com
What if the Earth heats up?
Forest fires could occur more often.
blogs.canoe.ca
What if the Earth heats up?
Plants and animals unable to take the heat
may go extinct, and be replaced by heat
tolerant species.
neutralexistence.com
saddleridgeva.com
What if the Earth heats up?
Hurricanes, tornadoes and other storms
caused by changes in heat and water
evaporation might occur more frequently
and be more intense.
pantherfile.uwm.edu
ownthedollar.com
The effects of Climate Change
We expect that because of climate change:
• Temperatures will increase.
• Winter rainfall will get heavier, increasing
the risk of flooding.
kirklees.gov.uk
The effects of Climate Change
• Summer rainfall may reduce considerably,
creating pressure on water resources.
• Sea levels will rise due to melting ice caps, leading
to further coastal erosion and flood risk.
kirklees.gov.uk
What is happening in
the Arctic is a
"tipping point”
Scientists worry that climate change is
progressing so rapidly that, within
decades, humans may be helpless to slow
There is a or
threshold
where
a
slight
rise
in
reverse the trend.
This
the ‘tipping
point’ beyond
whicha
theis Earth's
temperature
can cause
really
dangerous
change is likely
dramatic
change climate
in the environment
that
to beaunstoppable.
itself triggers
far greater increase in
global temperatures.
Activity
• Think of ways in which you could reduce
global warming. Watch the following videos
to see if they could give you any ideas.
The bulb
Young people
Homework: Write what you could do to reduce
global warming on the class website.
Learning Objectives
• Learn that the sun is distributed unevenly over
the earth’s surface.
• Discover what wind is and how wind is
formed.
• Learn how the air moves around the earth
The suns distribution of heat
Uneven distribution of heat
• The heat of the sun is spread out
unevenly over the earth.
• The temperature of any place is
determined by its location and its angle
from the sun.
• Where is the hottest place on earth?
The equator
• The equator is the hottest place on earth as
the suns rays are directly overhead. The rays
are concentrated on a smaller area which
becomes very hot.
• Far from the equator the sunrays are slanted
which causes them to be spread over larger
distances so temperatures are lower.
Moving Air (wind)
• Some parts of the earth are warmer than others – some parts
of the atmosphere are warmer than others.
This causes wind to happen.
1. Air has weight – this is called atmospheric pressure
2. Cold air is heavy. This heavy air presses down on the earth
which causes high pressure.
3. Warm air is light. Because it is light it rises up from the
earth. This causes low pressure.
4. Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low
pressure.
More about winds
• Winds are named after the direction from
which they blow
Winds that blow from the equator are warm
winds.
Winds that blow from the higher latitudes
towards the equator are said to be cool winds.
The winds that are most common in an area are
called prevailing winds.
Activity
• Draw the shape of the earth into your copies.
• Mark in the equator.
Coriolis Force
Northern hemisphere – winds move to the right
Southern hemisphere – winds move to the left
The is because the earth rotates on its axis
from west to east
Ocean Currents
• Great rivers that flow slowly across the surface
of our oceans.
• The currents that flow from higher latitudes
towards lower latitudes are called cold
currents
• Currents that flow from the equator to the
poles are called warm currents
Cold and Warm Currents
• In pairs discover the effects of warm and cold
ocean currents (pg 69)
• Write your findings into your copy.
• Give an example of each type of current.
End of Chapter
• Go back to your learning objectives for this
chapter.
• Traffic light