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Challenges in GHG Accounting and
Pierre Boileau
Manager, Climate Change
Canadian Standards Association
October 22, 2007
Climate Change: A Shift in Thinking
• Climate Change –
Driving Public Policy
• Need for…
- Carbon Footprint
- Improved Carbon
- Tools to Measure &
Report Progress
• To support emerging
market mechanisms
The carbon market is growing…
• World Bank says carbon market has grown
3-fold between 2005 and 2006, to a value of
$US30 billion;
• Ecosystem Marketplace and New Carbon
Finance say that:
- the Over The Counter (OTC) market grew 200%
between 2005 and 2006;
- Combined with the Chicago Climate Exchange, the
total voluntary market is worth more than $US90
• North America appears to be where most of
the voluntary action is.
…but there are concerns about the quality
of the tonnes.
• The Economist, Financial Times and
Business Week have published articles
critical of offsetting practice:
- Econ, Aug. 2006, ‘Upset about offsets’;
- FT, April 2006 ‘Beware the carbon offsetting
- BW, March 2007 ‘Another inconvenient truth’
• UK consulted on a voluntary code for
carbon offsetting. Responses indicated
wide range of diverging views;
• Guides from The Climate Group, Clean
Air/Cool Planet attempt to demystify the
subject matter
The challenges are numerous…
• Lack of understanding and education among
market participants;
• Many ‘anyways’ tonnes in the voluntary
• Development of quantification methodologies
is still evolving;
• Some validators and verifiers relaxing the
• Difficulty figuring out what standards to use;
• Lack of transparency in carbon neutral claims.
… But CSA is helping…
“GHG Accounting
& Management”
- Secretariat for ISO
14064 Working Group
on GHG quantification
& verification
- GHG Inventory and
Reporting Registries
- GHG Measurement
Tools & Training
…With key GHG tracking tools…
Document & Track Carbon Footprint
CSA’s GHG CleanStartTM Registry – also
based on ISO 14064
Available early 2008
Improving Carbon Footprints:
Invest in New Technologies
Improve Internal Operations & Policies
Invest in &/or Produce Green Power
Guidance on accessing quality offsets
Third-party verified
…And tools for the carbon markets.
CSA CleanProjectsTM
- Showcases Carbon
Reduction Projects
- Based on ISO 14064-2
and -3 Standards
- Simple, inexpensive,
scaled to meet market
Others are also helping…
• Emerging certification standards:
Voluntary Gold Standard
Voluntary Carbon Standard
Green-e standards
Carbon Neutral Company
• Accreditation and certification of personnel:
ISO 14065 accreditation for validation and verification
ISO 17024 schemes for personnel certification
• New standards
ISO new work items on carbon neutrality standards and ISO
14066 on GHG validator/verifier certification
…because there is a demand from the
voluntary carbon market.
• Weekly announcements on carbon
- Dell, HP,
- Dole, Wal-mart
- GE and AES
• Public is taking action:
- Terrapass, Clean Air Pass
- Major airlines allow offsetting of emissions
• Events are going carbon neutral
- Live Earth
- Major conferences
The future looks bright…
• ISO and GHG Protocol have created the basis for
credible GHG quantification;
• Validators and verifiers can soon become accredited
and/or certified;
• Third party verification and registration are becoming
the norm;
• Various certification standards for GHG tonnes or
carbon neutral products are emerging
Creating market differentiation;
Creating voluntary carbon market competition
…for those who want voluntary action.
• Voluntary markets can complement regulatory
Provide for participation of SME’s and individuals;
Can move economic actors to make decisions out of
economic or social self interest;
• Voluntary markets are built on clear market signals
Balance of supply and demand;
Price fluctuates with grade of offset;
• Voluntary markets are built on voluntary standards
and practices
Do not require intervention of regulators;
With transparency, buyers make decisions with the proper
Market forces will drive the need for quality tonnes
Making Standards Work for
People & Business
Thank You