European security Security definitions and the main dilemmas Dr. Arūnas Molis 22 April, 2014 Tallinn Content: Changing understanding of security Most relevant security concerns Secure-insecure regions Security according Europeans When do you feel secure? Approaches towards security Traditional (rational, conventional): Security is a state of order which could be reached by eliminating threats using military and non-military instruments Post-modern: Security is socially constructed and gets its meaning only in a certain social context What kind of security? Global or international security (global poverty, terrorism) National security (weapons of mass destruction) Security of each individual person (safety of food, water, etc.) What is changing security understanding? Military conflicts The growth of new powers (states, NGO’s, interests groups, terrorists, etc.) Climate change Population or energy caused stress Instable global economic system Weakness of democratic institutions Increased reliance on critical infrastructures Global poverty “Hard”, “soft” and “human” security Hard security military and state-centered involves the use of force Soft security Non-military and not necessarily state-centric Protection of the system and its users from harm, in gentle and unobtrusive ways Non-violance, convincement, social control Human security security of individuals and the communities in which they live Elimination of life-threatening risks that emanate from poverty, natural disasters Extension of rule-governed as opposed to war-based security What is at stake? Munich security conference Main topics on the 2011 Main topics on the 2014 agenda: agenda: Implications of the Financial Crisis on Global Stability and Security Non-proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament: What’s Next? Cyber Security What’s happening in the Arab World? Global and Regional Security Challenges Rebooting Trust? Freedom vs. Security in Cyberspace The Future of European Defence The Middle East Peace Process The Syrian Catastrophe A Transatlantic Renaissance? Global Power and Regional Stability: A Focus on CEE Energy and Climate Security What Season is next for the Middle East? Global peace index 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qU59B77VugQ Security in Europe – what really matters? Europeans on security Different perception of security by different countries in Europe Members of NATO Countries pursuing policy of non-alignment Countries annexed by USSR Members of Warsaw Treaty Organization Perception of threats by country What do our documents say? “Official” threats to European security According to ESS (2003) “New” threats Terrorism cyber attacks (religious extremism, pressure of modernization, alienation of young people) energy supply Proliferation of WMD (biological, chemical, radiological materials) Regional conflicts (Kashmir, Great Lake region, Korean peninsula, Middle East) State Failure (Somalia, Liberia, Afghanistan) Organized crime (trafficking in drugs, women, illegal migrants, weapons) disruptions climate change piracy Questions?