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European security
Security definitions and the
main dilemmas
Dr. Arūnas Molis
22 April, 2014
Tallinn
Content:
 Changing understanding of security
 Most relevant security concerns
 Secure-insecure regions
 Security according Europeans
When do you feel
secure?
Approaches towards security
 Traditional (rational, conventional):
 Security is a state of order which could be
reached by eliminating threats using
military and non-military instruments
 Post-modern:
 Security is socially constructed and gets its
meaning only in a certain social context
What kind of security?
 Global or international security
(global poverty, terrorism)
 National security
(weapons of mass destruction)
 Security of each individual person
(safety of food, water, etc.)
What is changing security
understanding?
 Military conflicts
 The growth of new powers
(states, NGO’s, interests groups, terrorists, etc.)






Climate change
Population or energy caused stress
Instable global economic system
Weakness of democratic institutions
Increased reliance on critical infrastructures
Global poverty
“Hard”, “soft” and “human” security
 Hard security
 military and state-centered
 involves the use of force
 Soft security
 Non-military and not necessarily state-centric
 Protection of the system and its users from harm, in
gentle and unobtrusive ways
 Non-violance, convincement, social control
 Human security
 security of individuals and the communities in which
they live
 Elimination of life-threatening risks that emanate from
poverty, natural disasters
 Extension of rule-governed as opposed to war-based
security
What is at stake?
Munich security conference
 Main topics on the 2011 Main topics on the 2014
agenda:
agenda:
 Implications of the
Financial Crisis on Global
Stability and Security
 Non-proliferation, Arms
Control and Disarmament:
What’s Next?
 Cyber Security
 What’s happening in the
Arab World?
 Global and Regional
Security Challenges
 Rebooting Trust? Freedom vs.
Security in Cyberspace
 The Future of European
Defence
 The Middle East Peace Process
 The Syrian Catastrophe
 A Transatlantic Renaissance?
 Global Power and Regional
Stability: A Focus on CEE
 Energy and Climate Security
 What Season is next for the
Middle East?
Global peace index 2013
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qU59B77VugQ
Security in Europe – what
really matters?
Europeans on security
Different perception of security by
different countries in Europe
 Members of NATO
 Countries pursuing policy
of non-alignment
 Countries annexed by
USSR
 Members of Warsaw
Treaty Organization
Perception of threats by country
What do our documents say?
“Official” threats to European security
According to ESS (2003)
“New” threats

Terrorism
 cyber attacks
(religious extremism, pressure of
modernization, alienation of young people)  energy supply

Proliferation of WMD
(biological, chemical, radiological
materials)

Regional conflicts
(Kashmir, Great Lake region, Korean
peninsula, Middle East)

State Failure (Somalia, Liberia,
Afghanistan)

Organized crime
(trafficking in drugs, women, illegal
migrants, weapons)
disruptions
 climate change
 piracy
Questions?