Download Coal: A Climate Crisis

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Nature wikipedia, lookup

Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment wikipedia, lookup

Tectonic–climatic interaction wikipedia, lookup

History of climate change science wikipedia, lookup

Environmental impact of electricity generation wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Coal: A Climate Crisis
How is America’s biggest
energy source (and now
China’s) affecting our planet?
What is the greenhouse effect?
Radiation from sun hits
Earth
Earth absorbs some and
converts this energy to
infrared, which is radiated
back into the atmosphere
on its way to space
Infrared is absorbed by
greenhouse gases
Trapped infrared energy
is re-radiated back to
Earth’s surface
What are greenhouse gases?
Break up of
Greenhouse Gases in
Atmosphere
Carbon
Dioxide
20%
1%
60%
16%
3%
Ozone
Methane
Nitrous
Oxide
Water
Vapor
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH4)
Water Vapor (H2O)
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Tropospheric Ozone
(O3)
How does CO2 affect Earth?
The more CO2 in
atmosphere, the hotter
the climate
Slightest CO2 changes
cause temperature
increase
Current CO2 level is 380
ppm (parts per million), a
dramatic increase of 100
ppm over stable levels for
the past 10,000 years.
What is the problem with coal?
Coal energy
production emits
1,894 million metric
tons of CO2 annually
in the U.S.
Production emits
sulfur, a gas that
causes acid rain,
mercury, a
neurotoxin, and other
pollutants.
How is coal used for electricity?
Can the process be cleaner?
Coal turned into gas
before burning, and
sulfur and nitrogen
are removed
Leftover CO2
sequestered instead
of blown into
atmosphere
What is carbon sequestration?
Pumping carbon into
“carbon sinks”—an
area that absorbs
carbon
Natural sinks—
oceans, forests, soil,
rocks, atmosphere
Carbon can be
pumped into empty oil
reserves
Percent of Total Emissions By
Country
Japan
5%
India
5%
Germany
3%
U.K.
2%
China
14%
Other
41%
Russia
6%
U.S.
24%
U.S.
Russia
China
India
Japan
Germany
U.K.
Other
Country
iA
ra
bi
a
Ca
na
da
ei
st
ra
lia
US
A
rg
Br
un
Au
E
wa
it
bo
u
Ku
UA
Ba
hr
ai
n
xe
m
Sa
ud
Lu
at
ar
Tr
in
id
ad
Q
Metric Tons
CO2 Emissions Per Capita
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
Global treaty to
reduce greenhouse
gas emissions
Calls for 5.2%
reduction from 1990
greenhouse gas
levels by 2010 (29%
reduction from
anticipated future
levels)
What do the countries do?
Countries have individual reduction goals
(European Union by 8%, U.S. was asked
to cut 7%)
Emissions trading—countries who produce
less greenhouse gases than their limit
allows can sell ability to produce the
leftover amount to other countries
Who ratified the Kyoto Protocol?
160 countries
including the
European Union,
Japan, India, China,
Russia, and Canada
U.S. and Australia are
the only two industrial
nations which have
refused to ratify the
Kyoto Protocol.
Quiz- True or False?
1. Earth reflects solar radiation out into the
atmosphere as infrared
False. Earth radiates infrared. Reflection occurs when the energy
leaving is the same as what came in. Radiation occurs when the
energy is changed before it leaves. In this case, the energy is
changed from short wave UV rays to long wave infrared rays.
2. Earth’s temperature is directly correlated
to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
True. As the level of CO2 changes, the average temperature
changes.
Quiz- True or False?
3. Carbon Dioxide is the most abundant
greenhouse gas.
False. Carbon Dioxide only makes up about 20% of all
greenhouse gases, while water vapor can make up over 60%.
4. Under the Kyoto Protocol, each country
must reduce its emissions by 5.2%.
False. Each country has its own individual goal. A reduction of
5.2% from the 1990 records is the overall global goal.
Quiz- Multiple Choice
1. How much will the Kyoto Protocol reduce
greenhouse gas emissions based on
what the 2010 level was predicted to be?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9%
19%
29%
39%
Quiz- Multiple Choice
2. Which of the following statements is NOT
true about coal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
It is the most used energy source in the U.S.
It is sequestered in oceans.
It is burned to heat steam to run a turbine.
It produces nitrogen and sulfur oxides when burned.
The carbon dioxide produced when coal is used for energy is
sequestered, not the coal.
Quiz- Multiple Choice
3. What is the current amount of CO2 in
Earth’s atmosphere?
A.
B.
C.
D.
280 ppm
200 ppm
360 ppm
380 ppm
Quiz- Multiple Choice
4. Which of the following is NOT a
greenhouse gas?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Water vapor
Methane
Sulfur
Ozone
Sulfur causes acid rain, but is not a greenhouse gas.
Bibliography
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
"Mechanisms Under the Kyoto Protocol." United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change. 5 May 2006. United Nations. 30 May
2006 <http://unfccc.int/kyoto_mechanisms/items/1673.php>.
Romero, Simon. "2 Industry Leaders Bet on Coal But Split on Cleaner
Approach." New York Times 28 May 2006.
Saito, Shigeyuki. "CO2 Emissions by Country." OM Solar. 10 July 2005.
31 May 2006 <http://www.omsolar.net/en/omsolar1/co2_emissions.html>.
"Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification." United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change. 18 Apr. 2006. United Nations. 2 June
2006
<http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/kyoto_protocol/application/p
df/kpstats.pdf>.
Abbot Power Plant. 2004. Champaign, Illinois. Coal—Illinois' Black
Treasure. Illinois State Geological Survey. 3 June 2006
<http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/servs/pubs/geobits-pub/geobit12/gb12a.htm>.
Blasing, T.j., and Sonja Jones. "Current Greenhouse Gas
Concentrations." Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Feb. 2005.
CDIAC. 11 June 2006 <http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html>.