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‫بنام خداوند ایران زمین‬
‫توانای دانای عشق آفرین‬
Movements
5 main GHGs
Air traffic
increasing
IATA report: . . . around 30 million
scheduled air transport operations
around the world annually.
European statistic shows the air traffic
demand growth in 2025 would be about
2.1 times greater than it was in 2003.
Global CO2 by Sector
Flight Cycles
Aircraft Emissions
 Air Quality
 Climate Change
 Noise
Operational Flight Cycles
Different Segment Affects
Operational Flight Cycles
Aerodrome & Local Air Quality
Delay
1) on the ground
2) in the air
1 ton fuel burn:
 3.15 tones of CO2
Departure and Landing Noise:
 More than 100 dB
Operational Flight Cycles
En-route and Climate Change
Aircraft Emissions
at above FL300
Contrails
Cirrus Cloud
Result? Warming!
Stop or Reduce
Emissions?
Int’l Protocols
Sustainable Development
- Economic
- Social
- Environment
Sustainable
Development
Stakeholders
and their collaborations
 1- Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs)  IAC, GCAA,
Serco, Skyguide, DFS, FAA, Nav Canada, Airservice Australia, etc.
 2- Aircraft Operators (Airlines)  Iran Air, Mahan Air, Kish Air,
Aseman Airline, etc.
 3- Airport Operators (AO)  ACI Europe
 4- Aviation Regulators  ICAO, IATA, Eurocontrol, etc.
 5- Manufacturers  Boeing, Airbus, Fokker, etc.
 6- Passengers
 7- Environmental groups, local airport residence and the
publics  e.g Stop Stansted Expansion (UK), Friends of the
Earth, etc.
 8- Other groups  Military, Scientist and Academics, General
Aviation, Leisure Pilots, Business (tourism and travel), etc.
What is solution?
CNS/ATM System
Trade-Offs
ATM System
Efficiency
Solution?
Continuous Climb
Continuous Climb:
It cost 250 kg more fuel (in average) for
step-climb for aircraft to reach it’s
optimum climb.
It cost 300 kg more fuel (in average) to
maintain non-desired level per hour.
Solution?
CDA (Continuous Descend Approach)
Benefits are:
- Reduce airframe noise
- Overall noise reduction
- Reduces fuel burn
- Reduces CO2 and NOx Emissions
Solution?
Direct Route
Solution?
Direct Route
Solution?
Direct Route
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