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Integrated Urban Water Management – Danish
and International Challenges and Solutions
Miriam Feilberg, Urban Water, DHI
1. Global Urban Challenges
2. Integrated approaches – IWRM to IUWM
- UN Habitat
- World Bank Study
- City Blueprints
3. Danish Challenges
4. Three projects for solutions:
- Water in cities/Vand i Byer
- CEWP – IUWM
- Aarhus joint management
© DHI
Urban development 2005 - 2015
© DHI
UN Habitat on Urban Water
© DHI
WHY CITIES?
Cities
are
concentrated
centers
of
production, consumption and waste disposal
that drive land change and a host of global
environmental problems and are highly
dependent on other cities and hinterlands to
supply materials (including water), energy,
and to dispose waste.
Sources:
Grimm et al., 2008. Science 319 (5864), 756-760.
Bai, 2007. Journal of Industrial Ecology 11, 1-6.
Engel et al., 2011. World Wildlife Fund, Germany.
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Coastal areas and links to climate change
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Climate change among key urban challenges
© DHI
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UN Habitat on challenges
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Some trends
• Urbanization increasing
• Megacities grow in developing countries
• Urban centres along coast and in delta areas are very vulnerable to
climate change
• Cities can do well in economic growth, sanitation and water supply
like Tokyo and European megacity – Istanbul
• Cities face numerous challenges – but necessary unit for improved
management – where things happen –need for more integrated
aproaches that can include all challenges.
© DHI
IWRM TO IUWM
IWRM based on Dublin principles:
1.
Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the
environment
2.
Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users,
planners and policy-makers at all levels – lowest appropriate level – river basin level
3.
Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water
4.
Water is a public good and has a social and economic value in all its competing uses
5.
Integrated water resources management is based on the equitable and efficient management and
sustainable use of water.
Cross-sectorial integration
• Enabling
environment
• Institutions
• Management
tools
Water
supply
and
sanitation
11
Water
for food
Water
for
nature
Water
for
industry,
energy,
etc. .
Overriding criteria for IWRM
Economic efficiency in water use:
Because of the increasing scarcity of water and financial resources, the finite
and vulnerable nature of water as a resource, and the increasing demands
upon it, water must be used with maximum possible efficiency;
Equity:
The basic right for all people to have access to water of adequate quantity
and quality for the sustenance of human well-being must be universally
recognized;
Environmental and ecological sustainability:
The present use of the resource should be managed in a way that does not
undermine the life-support system, thereby compromising use by future
generations of the same resource.
No similar definition for urban water
12
IUWM approaches – a subset of IWRM?
UN Habitat:
© DHI
WB: Good generel planinng and management practices for
IUWM
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Tailored to specific and dynamic challenges in each urban area
Has to incorporate different interactions among users in watershed
Participatory approaches and instruments
Not one-time action, but iterative and long-term process
Bot institutions and processes as well as infrastructure and
investments
• Must be informed by sound science and technical analysis
• Away from segmented, linear thinking towards more interdependent
and integrated urban planning
• Address todays challenges without losing sight of tomorrows needs
© DHI
Vand I Byer - Common international features of integrated urban
management
• A comprehensive resource in the hydrological cycle - quantity and quality
• The urban management coordinated with resource management in the basin
• Coherent framework for coordination of spatial planning and landscape planning in
cities
• Urban nature included as elements of the total water use in the same way as
physical infrastructure
• Management at the lowest appropriate level
• Water has an economic value, polluter pays and the solutions are not only
economic but also environmental and social – governance matters
• Coordination between actors required, also basin area, most often by municipality,
town or the water company
© DHI
Some examples
© DHI
CITY Blueprints 30 cities/regions have participated so far
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Algarve (Portugal)
Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
Ankara (Turkey)
Athens (Greece)
Belém (Brazil)
Berlin (Germany)
Bologna (Italy)
Bucharest (Romania)
Copenhagen (Denmark)
Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)
Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
Genova (Italy)
Hamburg (Germany)
Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
Istanbul (Turkey)
City Blueprints AG, 6
November 2014
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17
Jerusalem (Israel)
Kilamba Kiaxi (Angola)
Lyon (France)
Maastricht (The Netherlands)
Malmö (Sweden)
Malta (Malta)
Manresa (Spain)
Melbourne (Australia)
Oslo (Norway)
Reggio Emilia (Italy)
Reykjavic (Iceland)
Rotterdam (The Netherlands)
Scotland (UK)
Venlo (The Netherlands)
Zaragoza (Spain)
Amsterdam
CITY BLUEPRINTS
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Amsterdam
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Collaboration between cities matters: blue cities
City Blueprints AG, 6
November 2014
21
Findings from Vand i Byer Project
International IUWM experiences and
Danish challenges and solutions
© DHI
How are we on governance – contributors to Danish policymaking – OECD governance study.
© DHI
Coordination at national level
© DHI
Mapping of local institutional responsibilities
© DHI
Compared to OECD – solid starting point
• Overskuelig struktur
• Én aktør på policy-making, mens andre har mellem to og 13
forskellige indenfor forskellige områder af vandforvaltningen,
overfladevand, spildevand
• Vand forankret i ét ministerium og én styrelse, gode rammer omkring
koordination, både redskaber til koordination som fælles databaser
og institutioner med ansvar for koordinering.
• Lokal forvaltning overskuelig struktur for vandforvaltningen, men
erfaringerne viser, at der er en del usikkerhed omkring fordeling af
ansvar og roller i relation til klimatilpasning
© DHI
Sammenligning med øvrige OECD-lande
• Strukturer omkring høring af borgerne, men kun i mindre omfang
direkte inddragelse i beslutningsprocesserne eller opbygning af
partnerskaber
• Samarbejde og koordination på oplandsniveau - organisationer med
ansvar for forvaltning eller koordination på oplandsniveau – to some
extent.
• Vejledningerne til klimatilpasning lægger op til øget, men frivillig
koordination. Dette bør adresseres fremadrettet, både i forhold til
håndtering af vand i byer, sammenhængene med det åbne land og
klimatilpasning.
© DHI
Project results
Danish cases
© DHI
15 cases – technical challenges to improve cc adaptation and
prevent flooding after extreme events.
Primary extreme rain challenges
Rainwater from roofs and roads
2
Flooding of roads
2
Discharge of rain water to streams
1
Flooding og private households
6
Water quality and climate change adaptation
2
Sea water intrusion
2
Total
© DHI
15
Identificerede barrierer
Organisatorisk:
• Rollefordeling, primært mellem kommune og forsyning
• Samarbejdsrelationer, kommune og forsyning
• Kommunernes ressourcer og faglig viden ift. sagsbehandling
• Kommunernes ressourcer til klimasikring
• Ansvar og finansiering ift. drift af anlæg
• Manglende eller sen inddragelse af alle aktører
• Behov for præcisering omkring skybrud, klimatilpasning og
overholdelse af servicemål
• Planlægningshorisontens længde
© DHI
Identificerede barrierer
Finansielt:
• Finansieringsmodeller generelt
• Grænseflader mellem kommuner og forsyning omkring finansiering
• Vilkår for takstfinansiering
• Finansiering af indsats på privat grund
• Regler omkring alternative løsninger f.eks. regnbede og brug af veje,
finansiering af rekreative tiltag, der kan bruges til klimasikring
• Finansiering til forundersøgelser af tiltag
• Finansiering af driftsomkostninger ved klimasikring
© DHI
Identificerede barrierer
Lovgivningsmæssigt:
• Spildevandsplanens binding for forsyning
• Roller omkring indsats på privat grund
• Lovgivning omkring veje - indsatsen på dem
og brug af dem er uklar.
© DHI
Recommendations for better management
© DHI
Status efter revisioner – mange forbedringer:
• Bedre håndtering af risikovurdering
• Fortsat forsyningers fokus på effektivisering – tiltag først efter risikokortlægning
• Samlet prioritering af tiltag
• Koordination mellem kommuner
• Bedre rammer for samarbejde mellem kommuner og forsyninger
• Øget fokus på bæredygtige, helhedsorienterede løsninger
• Opfordring til øget tværkommunalt samarbejde – frivilligt
• Men – stadig udfordringer
© DHI
Anbefalinger for det videre arbejde med integreret håndtering af vand
1. Bedre samarbejde mellem kommune og forsyning
2. Behov for bedre samarbejde internt i kommunen
3. Klarere rammer omkring finansiering
4. Forsikring og klimatilpasning
5. Bedre sammenhæng på tværs af policy- og
indsatsområder
6. Bedre sikring af samarbejde på tværs af oplande
© DHI
Anbefalinger for det videre arbejde
7. Bedre inddragelse af aktører
8. Udarbejdelse af et nyt skrift fra Spildevandskomiteen om
risikominimering
9. Uddannelse
10. Behov for ny vandlov?
11. Behov for systematisk erfaringsopsamling
12. Behov for systematisk evaluering af klimatilpasning
© DHI
Are the recommendations still relevant?
Do these challenges still exist?
© DHI
Vand i Byer – Klikker: Key
technical challenges
© DHI
Governance
challenges
Continue search for solutions
IUWM in China
© DHI
Urban Water Challenges: IUWM
46
Urban Water Problems in China
Scale and pace of China‘s urbanization promises to continue at an unprecedented rate. It is
an unpredictable challenge for IUWM.
Urbanization & Water shortages
Severe water shortage, average
rainfall - 493mm,growing water
consumption, urban environmental
challenges
石家庄
Traditional Urban Water System
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© DHI
24 May, 2017
#48
Water supply system
Sewer system
Drainage system
Water ways
Lakes and Water
conservancy projects
Example of of urban flooding:
•
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Due to the climate change, the extreme rainfalls become more frequently, especially in big
cities (according to the Urban Heat Island Effect). The construction Ministry of China has
organized an investigation in 351 cities in China, they found between 2008-2010, 62%
cities have urban flooding issues. Among them, 137 cities have more than three times of
urban flooding. Flooding caused by extreme rainfalls is a common problem in many big
cities.
www.dhi-cn.com
Due to historical reasons, river flooding prevention standard is different from the design
criteria for urban drainage system. (In general, river flooding prevention standard is about
20 years or higher, and urban drainage system is designed for 1 year or 2 year rainfall
event).
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
Beijing, 2007
Beijing, 2008
Urban Water Problems in China
中国的城市水问题
Urbanization & Water Environment
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Development of urban water system lags behind
urbanization
Water supply security
High pollution level
Pollution from urban surface runoff
Negative effects of water conservancy projects on
environment
Concreted river bank and bottom
River curves cut-off - weirs and sluice gates …
Climate change
What is IUWM generally?
IUWM seeks to change the impact of urban development on the natural water cycle,
based on the premise that by managing the urban water cycle as a whole; a more efficient
use of resources can be achieved providing not only economic benefits but also improved
social and environmental situation.
One approach is to establish an inner, urban, water cycle loop through the implementation
of reuse strategies. Developing this urban water cycle loop requires an understanding
both of the natural, pre-development, water balance and the post-development water
balance.
© DHI
24 May, 2017
#53
What is IUWM generally?
通常意义上的城市水综合管理
IUWM seeks to change the impact of urban development on the natural water cycle,
based on the premise that by managing the urban water cycle as a whole; a more efficient
use of resources can be achieved providing not only economic benefits but also improved
social and environmental situation.
城市水综合管理的目标就是,通过对城市水循环系统的整体管理来改变城市发展对自然水
循环的影响,不但可以通过实现水资源的有效利用提供经济效益,而且可以改善社会和自
然环境。
One approach is to establish an inner, urban, water cycle loop through the implementation
of reuse strategies. Developing this urban water cycle loop requires an understanding
both of the natural, pre-development, water balance and the post-development water
balance.
开发城市内水循环系统是解决问题的一个实现途径,但是其设计需要对
自然流域、城市水循环现状、水平衡和城市未来规划的全面了解。
© DHI
24 May, 2017
#54
CEWP IUWM Focus areas: first technical
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Urban water resources (water supply, water reuse, storm water
harvesting, blue and green cities)
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Urban storm water management and flooding, sustainable urban
drainage system (low impact development)
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Water in the urban landscape – living with the water and
recreational use of water
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Urban water environment, protection and pollution control
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Non-revenue water and pressure management
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Construction of Sponge City(LID measures Planning, promotion of
construction concept and technology)
© DHI
Urban Water Governance
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Reform of management system - unified management
Improving water efficiency, reducing water demand and wastewater
Development of urban water cycle loop
Combining of centralized and distributed domestic
wastewater system
• Overall city planning for integrated urban water system, LID
• Solution for storm-runoff pollution
• Development of IUWM DSS
© DHI
To sum up IUWM – Denmark and China
• Recognized need for integrates solutions
• Many frameworks for this exist
• Developed methodology for mapping barriers and development of
recommendations
• Good experiences in improving governance in Denmark – we have a
sound institutional framework to sell
• We sell water solutions internationally - experiences from developing
countries: technical solutions cannot stand alone
• We must improve marketing our governance experiences and
solutions as part of the Danish way.
© DHI
To sum up - IUWM in Denmark and globally
• Recognized need for integrated solutions
• Many frameworks for this exist
• Developed methodology for mapping barriers and development of
recommendations
• Good experiences in improving governance in Denmark – we have a
sound institutional framework to sell
• We sell water solutions internationally - experiences from developing
countries: technical solutions cannot stand alone
• We must improve marketing our governance experiences and
solutions as part of the Danish way.
© DHI
If you/we have time:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsj6PZyphcw
To know more about China and CEWP and to
participate:
www.cewp.org
Miriam Feilberg ([email protected])
© DHI
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