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BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Why do we need vessels?
At one point blood believed to be replenished as it
was consumed by the tissues.
Let’s calculate the cardiac output of a resting
(70ml/beat) * (70 beats/min) = 4900 ml/min
How much blood “used up” per day?
How many liters of water would you have
to drink?
What’s the route of blood flow through the body?
What are the similarities between vessels?
3 Main layers
(or tunics)
1) _____________
connective tissue
2) ____________
smooth muscle
and elastic fibers
3) ____________
connective tissue,
basement membrane
and endothelium
What are the differences between vessels?
Vessels classified
1) __________
Arteries = A____
Veins = __v____
2) _________
What are the differences between vessels?
Vessels classified
Medium vein
3) ___________
4) _________
Elastic artery
Muscular artery
What’s unique about capillaries?
•The 3 tunics not
continuous with
What are the differences between capillaries?
*no gaps in endothelium
*found in muscles and
nerves etc.
* “windows” in cell
*found in intestines,
choroid processes, kidneys
*big gaps in endothelium
*found near endocrine
glands (WHY?)
Which type most
How is capillary flow regulated?
do these
What are the physics of flow?
__________: Smooth flowing
fluids in concenctric layers
__________: Rough, irregular
flow in multiple directions
__________: A fluid’s
Resistance to flow
Flow, Pressure & resistance
Poiseuille’s law
Critical closing pressure
What is your blood pressure and how can you
measure it?
Determining blood
pressure indirectly
relies on:
What is your pulse and how can
you measure it?
Your pulse is a measure of the # of
heart beats per minute
Can be determined via:
__________ = apical pulse
______________ = temporal,
facial, carotid, axillary, brachial,
radial, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis
pedis and posterior tibial
__________ = carotid
Take 5!!!
Predict the effect of each of
the following conditions on
blood flow:
a) vasoconstriction of blood
vessels in the skin in
response to cold
b) vasodilation of dermal
vessels due to heat
c) polycythemia vera (>
What are the physics of phlow?
Velocity and Area
Pressure &
Pulse pressure
Take 5!!!
Explain the consequences of
worsening arteriosclerosis
on a large aortic aneurysm.
How is blood flow to tissues regulated?
Flow regulated by:
1) ______________
Needs of organs/tissues
met by demands.
As metabolism > so
does what?
These cause relaxation of
________________ and
Demand & _____________
What is mean arterial blood pressure?
M.A.B.P. is proportional to __________
CO = _____________________
Venous return can influence _________________
End-systolic volume can decrease because of
increased ________________
Difference between CO at rest and maximal CO is
known as _________________
How is blood flow to tissues regulated?
Flow regulated by:
2) _______________
Most vessels (except
capillaries) innervated
sympathetically, & are
associated with the ________
_________ of the brain
(pons/medulla oblongata).
Consists of _________ and
_________ regions
Constant excitatory signals
result in ________________
How is blood pressure regulated?
Short term
____________: What do they do? How do they
____________: What do they do? How do they
____________________________: When stimulated?
What result?
__________________: When medulla is metabolically
stressed fires many action potentials…results in >
vasomotor tone. Emergencies and short-lived
How is blood pressure regulated?
Long term
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism: series of
enzymes that influence ____________________________
Vasopressin (ADH): both names imply function...
Atrial natriuretic hormone: Name again describes origin
and function
Fluid shift: As b.p. ___ fluid moves from interstitial
spaces back _________________
Stress-Relaxation response: Depending on stress level,
__________________ contract and relax accordingly.
Where does blood go?
2 main categories
of circulation:
to and from lungs
to and from body
Refer to pg. 718 and know
the listed arteries!
Where does blood go?
Where does blood go?
Where does blood go?
Refer to pg. 729 and
know the listed
Where does blood go?