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Chapter 3
Physical Fitness and Your Health
Physical fitness- the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough energy
left to respond to unexpected demands.
 Health related fitness
Body composition
Muscular strength
Muscular endurance
 Skill related fitness
Reaction time
Benefits to Physical Health
Helps reduce fatigue and muscle stiffness
Boosts the immune system
Delays the onset of osteoporosis
Helps the body heal faster
Increases the functioning of many systems
in the body
Helps control weight
Benefits to Physical Health
Weight Control
Sedentary lifestyle- a lifestyle that requires
little or no movement or exercise
Metabolism- process by which your body
gets energy from food
Calories-potential energy value from food
and is measured in units of heat
1 pound of fat = 3,500 calories
Excess calories are stored as fat
Benefits to Emotional Health
Reduces stress and muscle tension
Stimulates the creative centers in the brain
Builds self esteem
Benefits to Social Health
Get to know people on a team or at the
Learn about cooperation and teamwork
Improving Health related fitness
 Aerobic exercisevigorous activity in
which oxygen is taken
in for at least 20
minutes at a time.
 Jogging, aerobic
classes, swimming
 Anaerobic exerciseintense bursts of
activity in which the
muscles work so hard
that they produce
energy without
 Sprinting, fast break
in basketball, football
Types of Anaerobic Exercises
Isometrics- uses muscles tension with little
or no movement of the body part
Isotonics- combines muscle contractions
with repeated movements
Isokenetics- involves resistance through
an entire range of motion
Planning a Fitness Program
Before starting
Consult a doctor and get a physical
List activities that you like
List activities that you have access to
Planning a Fitness Program
 Cross training- a variety of activities to work
different body systems and prevent boredom
 Overload- to benefit from exercise you must
work the body harder than it is normally worked
 Progression- a gradual increase in overload to
achieve a higher level of fitness
 Specificity- certain exercises and activities to
improve particular areas of health-related
fitness. Activities that are specific to your sport.
The Workout
Warm-up prepares the muscles for the
work that is to come (stretching, sport
specific exercises, jogging)
Workout should follow the F.I.T.T formula
Frequency: how often you workout
Intensity: how hard you should work (THRZ)
Time: how long you work out
Type: kinds of exercises that you do
The Workout
Cool-down is an activity to gradually
decrease activity (jogging, walk, stretch)
Heart Rate
Heart Rate (HR)
Count for 30s, 15s, 10s, or 6s then
multiple accordingly for a 1 minute result.
Do not count the first pulse (Start with 0, 1,
2, 3)
Radial artery, or carotid artery (don’t press
to hard)
Normal rate?
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure (BP)
Systolic- pressure in the arteries during
ventricular contraction (top number)
Increase with exercise
Diastolic- pressure in arteries during
ventricular relaxation (bottom number)
Should remain the same
Normal Rate?
Target Heart Rate Zone
Find your resting heart rate _____
220- age (maximum heart rate) _____
Take MHR- RHR _______
Multiply # from step 3 by 70% and then
add your RHR _________
Multiply # from step 3 by 85% and then
add your RHR _________
THRZ is step 4 and step 5
Avoiding Injuries
 Most common injuries are that occur from
exercise are to the muscular and skeletal
 Minor Exercise related injuries
Muscle cramps- is a spasm or sudden tightening of a
muscle; muscle irritation within the muscle from being
tired, overworked or dehydrated.
Strain- muscle is being overworked
Sprain- injury to tissues surrounding a joint; ligaments
connect bone to bone; strong, cord-like bands that can
be stretched or torn.
Avoiding Injuries
R.I.C.E procedure is a method for
treatment for the injuries above
Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation
Major Exercise related injuries
Fractures- any type of break in the bone; two
parts of the bone have been separated
Dislocations- when a bone slips from its normal
position at a joint.
Tendinitis- when the tendons, bands that
connect muscle to bone, are stretched or torn
Avoiding Injuries
 Weather related injuries
Overexertion- also known as dehydration, is when there
is overworking of the body.
Heat cramps- muscles spasms that are the result of loss
of large amount of salt and water through perspiration.
Heat exhaustion- an overheating of the body resulting in
cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock.
Heatstroke- the body loses its ability to rid itself of
excess heat through perspiration.
Avoiding Injuries
Weather related injuries
Frostbite- is a condition that results when the
body tissue becomes frozen
Hypothermia- body temperature is dangerously